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State(s)DateStatement TitleNature of statementExcerpts (in English)"Excerpts (in original language if not English)"Purported jus ad bellum-related justifications (if any)Purported object(s) of action (if any)Type(s) of activities (possibly) coveredOrigin URLPerma.cc Link
Australia2015-09-09Letter from the Permanent Representative of Australia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""I am writing in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to report to the Security Council that Australia is taking measures against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Syria in support of the collective self-defence of Iraq as part of international efforts led by the United States.
On 20 September 2014 the Government of Iraq wrote to inform the Security Council that ISIL had established safe havens outside Iraq's borders in Syria and that ISIL attacks emanating from these positions posed a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory. The Government of Iraq requested that the United States lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and military strongholds in Syria in order to end the constant attacks on Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens and ultimately to enable Iraqi forces to regain control of Iraq's borders.
This threat to Iraq its territorial integrity and its citizens persists. Attacks by ISIL in Iraq from safe havens in Syria continue.
Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations recognizes the inherent right of States to act in individual or collective self-defence where an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations. States must be able to act in self-defence when the Government of the State where the threat is located is unwilling or unable to prevent attacks originating from its territory. The Government of Syria has by its failure to constrain attacks upon Iraqi territory originating from ISIL bases within Syria demonstrated that it is unwilling or unable to prevent those attacks.
In response to the request for assistance by the Government of Iraq Australia is therefore undertaking necessary and proportionate military operations against ISIL in Syria in the exercise of the collective self-defence of Iraq.
These operations are not directed against Syria or the Syrian people nor do they entail support for the Syrian regime. When undertaking such military operations Australia will abide by its obligations under international law."
Collective self-defenseISIL"Other; ""necessary and appropriate military operations"""http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_693.pdf
Australia2015-09-09Letter from the Permanent Representative of Australia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""I am writing in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to report to the Security Council that Australia is taking measures against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Syria in support of the collective self-defence of Iraq as part of international efforts led by the United States.
On 20 September 2014 the Government of Iraq wrote to inform the Security Council that ISIL had established safe havens outside Iraq’s borders in Syria and that ISIL attacks emanating from these positions posed a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory (see S/2014/691 annex). The Government of Iraq requested that the United States lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and military strongholds in Syria in order to end the constant attacks on Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens and ultimately to enable Iraqi forces to regain control of Iraq’s borders.
This threat to Iraq its territorial integrity and its citizens persists. Attacks by ISIL in Iraq from safe havens in Syria continue.
Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations recognizes the inherent right of States to act in individual or collective self-defence where an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations. States must be able to act in self-defence when the Government of the State where the threat is located is unwilling or unable to prevent attacks originating from its territory. The Government of Syria has by its failure to constrain attacks upon Iraqi territory originating from ISIL bases within Syria demonstrated that it is unwilling or unable to prevent those attacks.
In response to the request for assistance by the Government of Iraq Australia is therefore undertaking necessary and proportionate military operations against ISIL in Syria in the exercise of the collective self-defence of Iraq.
These operations are not directed against Syria or the Syrian people nor do they entail support for the Syrian regime. When undertaking such military operations Australia will abide by its obligations under international law."""Collective self-defenseISIL"Other; ""necessary and appropriate military operations"""http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_693.pdf
Austria2016-07-21Statement of Foreign Minister Kurz in the context of the conference of Global Coalition to Counter ISIL in WashingtonPublic statement"""Terrorist attacks in recent weeks once again made it very clear that there can be no such thing as neutrality in the face of terrorism and barbarism. Austria as a neutral country thus contributes to fighting ISIL at a humanitarian and political level. Some 5000 Foreign Terrorist Fighters from Europe are actively involved in Syria and in Iraq as IS fighters 300 of these came from Austria. Europe must counter terrorism pro-actively: at military level in Iraq Syria and Libya . . ."" --Federal Ministry Republic of Austria Official Translation""""Die Terror-Anschläge der letzten Wochen haben einmal mehr gezeigt dass es gegenüber dem Terror und der Barbarei keine Neutralität geben kann. Österreich leistet daher als neutrales Land einen humanitären und politischen Beitrag. Rund 5.000 sogenannte „Foreign Terrorist Fighters“ aus Europa sind in Syrien und im Irak als IS-Kämpfer aktiv davon kommen rund 300 aus Österreich. Europa muss gegen den Terror vorgehen: militärisch im Irak in Syrien und in Libyen . . ."""Collective self-defenseISILForeign assistance"English: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/the-ministry/press/announcements/2016/07/foreign-minister-kurz-attends-conference-of-global-coalition-to-counter-isil-in-washington/
German: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/das-ministerium/presse/aussendungen/2016/07/aussenminister-kurz-bei-konferenz-der-anti-is-allianz-in-washington/"https://perma.cc/6LAR-VW3M
Austria2016-09-06Address by Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz at the opening of the Ambassadors‘ ConferencePublic statement"""Even further south among our neighbours we have the situation in Syria Iraq and in Libya and I am happy that the fight against the IS terror is becoming more and more successful. We are managing to progress militarily however there are still thousands of people who set off from Europe to go to Iraq and Syria to rape and kill and who are now coming back to Europe. The terror attacks have shown us that we need to fight against terror not only with our armies but that in Europe we need to fight against the IS terror with our police forces as much as ideologically and attack the ideology behind it. Furthermore what is especially important to me is that Austria is one of the countries which cannot contribute in the military fight however that can contribute with humanitarian support."" --Federal Ministry Republic of Austria Official Translation""""Und wenn wir noch südlicher in unserer Nachbarschaft schauen dann haben wir die Situation in Syrien im Irak und in Libyen und ich bin froh dass der Kampf gegen den IS-Terror dort immer erfolgreicher wird. Wir schaffen es militärisch voranzukommen aber es gibt noch immer tausende Menschen die sich nicht nur von Europa auf den Weg gemacht haben um im Irak und in Syrien zu vergewaltigen und zu morden sondern die sich jetzt teilweise wieder auf den Weg zurück machen. Die Terroranschläge haben gezeigt dass wir nicht nur militärisch gegen diese Terroristen vorgehen müssen sondern dass wir auch in Europa polizeilich und vor allem auch ideologisch gegen den IS-Terror und die Ideologie dahinter kämpfen müssen. Und was mir ganz besonders wichtig ist: Wir sind als Österreich ein Land das in diesem militärischen Kampf keinen wirklichen Beitrag leisten kann aber wir können humanitär einen Beitrag leisten."""Collective self-defenseISILForeign assistance"English: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/the-ministry/press/speeches-and-interviews/2016/09/address-by-foreign-minister-sebastian-kurz-at-the-opening-of-the-ambassadors-conference-on-6-september-2016/
German: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/das-ministerium/presse/reden-und-interviews/2016/09/rede-von-aussenminister-sebastian-kurz-bei-der-eroeffnung-der-botschafterkonferenz-am-6-september-2016/"https://perma.cc/WBQ9-RHBL
Austria2016-10-08Press release with comments of Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz on the Situation in KobanePublic statement"""Federal Minister Sebastian Kurz called to continue resolutely facing the IS-Terrorists 'The IS-Terrorists who commit severe crimes of war and unimaginable acts of savagery in Northern Iraq and Syria must be stopped immediately. Especially the Kurds who are standing at the front line must be supported as well as possible by the international community in their fight against the IS-Terrorists in order to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe.' Federal Minister Kurz also pointed to the broad international consensus in the fight against IS and the UN-Resolution against Jihadists which was unanimously adopted by the UN-Security Council on 24 September. ... 'As military neutral country we contribute to the international alliance against IS through political and national measures against Jihadists and by humanitarian aid on site' closes Sebastian Kurz. --Federal Ministry Republic of Austria Official Translation""""Die drastischen Ereignisse im nordsyrischen Kobane an der türkisch-syrischen Grenze geben Anlass zu großer Sorge. Bundesminister Sebastian Kurz ruft dazu auf den IS-Terroristen weiterhin entschlossen entgegenzutreten: 'Die IS-Terroristen die im Nordirak und Syrien schwere Kriegsverbrechen und unvorstellbare Akte der Barbarei begehen müssen umgehend gestoppt werden. Insbesondere die Kurden die an vorderster Front stehen sind bei ihrem Kampf gegen die IS-Terroristen von der internationalen Gemeinschaft so gut wie möglich zu unterstützen um eine humanitäre Katastrophe abzuwenden.' Bundesminister Kurz verwies auch auf den breiten internationalen Konsens im Kampf gegen die IS und die am 24. September vom UN-Sicherheitsrat einstimmig verabschiedete UN-Resolution gegen Jihadisten. ... 'Wir bringen uns als militärisch neutrales Land auch in der internationalen Allianz gegen IS ein insbesondere politisch mit innerstaatlichen Maßnahmen gegen Jihadisten und mit humanitärer Hilfe vor Ort' so Sebastian Kurz abschließend."""UNSC ResolutionISILForeign assistance"English: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/the-ministry/press/announcements/2014/10/kurz-support-kurds-in-the-fight-against-is/
German: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/das-ministerium/presse/aussendungen/2014/10/kurz-kurden-bei-kampf-gegen-is-unterstuetzen/"https://perma.cc/K4XF-H5CG
Austria2015-11-14Press release with comments of Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz on the Syria-talks in ViennaPublic statement"""Minister for Foreign Affairs Sebastian Kurz emphasized the importance of the common fight against IS/Da’esh. 'In the light of the outrageous assaults in Paris and now in Beirut for which IS/Da’esh have claimed responsibility we are once more reminded how important it is to be united in the fight against the IS barbarians. Simultaneously to the peace efforts in Syria we therefore need to close the ranks against IS/Da’esh' Sebastian Kurz closed."" --Federal Ministry Republic of Austria Official Translation""""Außenminister Sebastian Kurz bekräftigte auch die Wichtigkeit des gemeinsamen Kampfes gegen IS/ Da‘esh. 'Gerade die unfassbaren Anschläge in Paris und zuletzt in Beirut zu denen sich IS/ Da‘esh bekannt hat führen uns klar vor Augen wie wichtig es ist die IS-Barbaren gemeinsam zu bekämpfen. Parallel zu den Friedensbemühungen in Syrien brauchen wir daher einen Schulterschluss gegen IS/ Da‘esh' so Sebastian Kurz abschließend."""Collective self-defenseISILForeign assistance"English: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/the-ministry/press/announcements/2015/11/federal-minister-kurz-result-of-todays-syria-talks-underlines-will-to-a-joint-solution/
German: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/das-ministerium/presse/aussendungen/2015/11/bundesminister-kurz-heutiges-ergebnis-der-syrien-gespraeche-bekraeftigt-willen-zu-gemeinsamer-loesung/"https://perma.cc/63SH-M2VL
Austria2011-08-23Press release with comments of Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger on the adoption of a Human Rights Council Resolution on SyriaPublic statement"""""People in Syria are still being shot dead incarcerated and tortured only because they want to claim their right to freedom of expression. This is unacceptable“ said Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor Michael expressing his concern about the continued brutal repression in Syria.
...
"The clear result of the vote on the resolution shows that the international community does not tolerate severe human rights violations"" Spindelegger continued. The resolution was adopted by a clear majority of 33 votes in favour and only 4 against.
"Our patience with the Syrian leadership is running out. Since all calls by the international community to President Assad to end the violent repression have remained unheeded and the repeatedly announced reforms are yet to be implemented he should resign. Austria together with its partners in the EU shall back and undertake all necessary steps to help the Syrian population in achieving its legitimate demands for respect of their human rights.”"" --Federal Ministry Republic of Austria Official Translation""""""Menschen in Syrien werden weiterhin erschossen eingekerkert und gefoltert nur weil sie ihr Recht auf Meinungsfreiheit in Anspruch nehmen wollen. Das ist inakzeptabel“ zeigte sich Außenminister und Vizekanzler Michael Spindelegger besorgt über die weiterhin andauernde brutale Repression.
...
Unsere Geduld mit der syrischen Führung ist am Ende. Da alle Aufrufe der internationalen Gemeinschaft an Präsident Assad zur Beendigung der gewalttätigen Repression ungehört blieben und die mehrmals angekündigten Reformen bisher nicht umgesetzt worden sind sollte er zurücktreten. Österreich gemeinsam mit seinen Partnern in der EU wird alle notwendigen Schritte unterstützen und setzen um der syrischen Bevölkerung zu helfen ihre legitimen Forderungen auf Achtung ihrer Menschenrechte zu verwirklichen.”"""UNSC ResolutionAssad regime"Other: ""...all necessary steps to help the Syrian population in achieving its legitimate demands for respect of their human rights.""""English: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/en/the-ministry/press/announcements/2011/spindelegger-our-patience-with-the-syrian-leadership-is-running-out/
German: https://www.bmeia.gv.at/das-ministerium/presse/aussendungen/2011/spindelegger-unsere-geduld-mit-der-syrischen-fuehrung-ist-am-ende/"https://perma.cc/SX8Q-JRY6
Austria2015-09-22Interview with chancellor Werner FaymannInterview response"ÖSTERREICH: ""France has asked the EU for assistance in the fight against ISIS. How will Austria respond? What assistance will we provide?
Faymann: We must not retreat in the face of terror Paris has shown us that we are vulnerable. The international community must now come even closer together. Police and intelligence agencies have to operate in a networked fashion. We need to get to the bottom of the financial flows of this criminal organization. And we have to sociopoliticaly strengthen those forces that are fighting for the eradication of poverty. Radicals live from trying to lure people who feel excluded.
ÖSTERREICH: But what contribution will Austria make against ISIS?
Faymann: If the question is: How can we be active in Syria against ISIS the answer is: This can only be done with a UN mandate. Our neutrality certainly does not mean indifference. France will enter into bilateral discussions with all EU countries and will express its ideas. We will be in solidarity. The Paris attacks were an attack on the whole of Europe and our basic values which must be defended."" --PILAC Informal Translation""ÖSTERREICH: ""Frankreich hat die EU um Beistand im Kampf gegen ISIS ersucht. Wie wird sich Österreich da verhalten? Welche Hilfe werden wir leisten?
Faymann: Wir dürfen gegenüber Terror nicht zurückweichen. Paris hat uns gezeigt dass wir verletzbar sind. Die internationale Gemeinschaft ist gefordert hier noch enger zusammenzurücken. Polizei und Nachrichtendienste müssen international vernetzter agieren. Wir müssen die Finanzströme dieser verbrecherischen Organisation aufklären. Und wir müssen gesellschaftspolitisch jene Kräfte stärken die sich für Armutsbekämpfung einsetzen. Radikale leben davon dass sie Menschen die sich ausgeschlossen fühlen zu ködern versuchen.
ÖSTERREICH: Aber welchen Beitrag wird Österreich gegen ISIS leisten?
Faymann: Wenn die Frage lautet: Wie können wir in Syrien aktiv gegen ISIS werden ist die Antwort: Das geht nur mit einem UN-Mandat. Unsere Neutralität bedeutet sicher nicht Teilnahmslosigkeit. Frankreich wird in bilaterale Gespräche mit allen EU-Staaten treten und seine Vorstellungen äußern. Wir werden uns einreihen in der so­lidarischen Teilnahme. Die Attentate in Paris waren ein Angriff auf ganz Europa und unsere Grundwerte. Diese gilt es zu verteidigen."""UNSC ResolutionISIL"Other: being ""active in Syria"""http://www.oe24.at/oesterreich/politik/Faymann-Muessen-gemeinsam-gegen-ISIS-kaempfen/213098295https://perma.cc/SU2B-YYQL
Austria2016-05-01Interview with Foreign Minister Sebastian KurzInterview response"""In the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (F.A.S.) the Austrian Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz called for a more active role of the European Union in its southern neighborhood. The politician of the conservative party of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) pointed out that in his understanding this includes military action.
In the South we have been watching the IS terror far too long from the sidelines. As Europe we should be much more effective in terms of our foreign and defense policy. We should be active before such conflagration occurs at all.'
Austrian neutrality would not be an obstacle for his country to participate in such missions. 'If I look at those threat scenarios then neutrality does not interfere. There is no neutrality against terrorism. To this extent we have all the possibilities for action that we need to be a decent partner.'
...
A brief reference was made to the use of a total of some 1000 Austrian soldiers in the Balkans partly under the leadership of the EU partly also under NATO. 'There is certainly the possibility to participate in peacekeeping missions and in the European context.'"" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Der österreichische Außenminister Sebastian Kurz hat in der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Sonntagszeitung (F.A.S.) eine aktivere Rolle der Europäischen Union in ihrer südlichen Nachbarschaft gefordert. Der Politiker der konservativen Partei ÖVP gab dabei zu erkennen dass er darunter auch den Einsatz von Militär versteht.
Im Süden haben wir dem IS-Terror viel zu lange zugesehen. Als Europa sollten wir wesentlich schlagkräftiger werden was unsere Außen- und auch Verteidigungspolitik betrifft. Wir sollten aktiv werden bevor ein solcher Flächenbrand überhaupt entsteht.'
Die österreichische Neutralität sei kein Hindernis für sein Land sich an solchen Missionen zu beteiligen. 'Wenn ich mir die Bedrohungsszenarien ansehe dann engt die Neutralität nicht ein. Es gibt keine Neutralität gegenüber dem Terrorismus. Insofern haben wir alle Handlungsmöglichkeiten die wir brauchen um ein ordentlicher Partner zu sein.'
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Kurz verwies auf den Einsatz von insgesamt rund 1000 österreichischen Soldaten auf dem Balkan teils unter Führung der EU teils auch der Nato. 'Es gibt durchaus die Möglichkeit bei friedenserhaltenden Missionen und im europäischen Kontext mitzuwirken.'"""Collective self-defenseISILTroops on the ground (peacekeeping missions)http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/kampf-gegen-den-terror/f-a-s-exklusiv-oesterreichs-aussenminister-fordert-schlagkraeftigere-eu-14209348.htmlhttps://perma.cc/48VT-XTTA
Bahrain Belgium Canada China the Czech Republic
Denmark Egypt France Germany Iraq Italy Japan Jordan Kuwait Lebanon the
Netherlands Norway Oman Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Spain Turkey United Arab
Emirates United Kingdom United States of America Arab League European Union United
Nations"2014-09-15International Conference on Peace and Security in IraqFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""4. All participants ... committed to supporting the new Iraqi Government in its fight against Daech (ISIL) by any means necessary including appropriate military assistance in line with the needs expressed by the Iraqi authorities in accordance with international law and without jeopardizing civilian security."""Collective self-defenseISIL"Other: ""appropriate military assistance"""http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files/iraq/events/article/international-conference-on-peacehttps://perma.cc/4Q26-YWPU
Belgium2016-06-07Letter from the Permanent Representative of Belgium to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 letter"""On behalf of my Government I am writing the present letter to report to the Security Council that in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations the Kingdom of Belgium is taking necessary and proportionate measures against the terrorist organization “Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant” (ISIL also known as Da’esh) in Syria in the exercise of the right of collective self-defence in response to the request from the Government of Iraq.
...
ISIL has occupied a certain part of Syrian territory over which the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic does not at this time exercise effective control. In the light of this exceptional situation States that have been subjected to armed attack by ISIL originating in that part of the Syrian territory are therefore justified under Article 51 of the Charter to take necessary measures of self-defence. Exercising the right of collective self-defence Belgium will support the military measures of those States that have been subjected to attacks by ISIL. Those measures are directed against the so-called “Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant” and not against the Syrian Arab Republic."""Collective self-defenseISIL"Other: ""support the military measures of those States that have been subjected to attacks by ISIL"""http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2016/523#unhttps://perma.cc/ZS8N-PNDN
Canada2014-10-03Statement by Prime Minister Stephen Harper in debates in front of the House of CommonsPublic Statement"Column 1205: ""ISIL has established a self-proclaimed caliphate at present stretching over a vast territory roughly from Aleppo to near Baghdad from which it intends to launch a terrorist jihad not merely against the region but on a global basis. Indeed it has specifically targeted Canada and Canadians urging supporters to attack 'disbelieving Canadians in any manner' vowing that we should not feel secure even in our homes.
...
In the territory ISIL has occupied it has conducted a campaign of unspeakable atrocities against the most innocent of people. It has tortured and beheaded children. It has raped and sold women into slavery. It has slaughtered minorities captured prisoners and innocent civilians whose only crime is being or thinking differently from ISIL. Indeed by late last summer ISIL stood on the brink of committing large scale genocide in Northern Iraq. This is why Canada's allies in the international community led by President Obama decided to intervene and why our country Canada became part of that intervention.
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Today we are bringing forward a motion asking the House to confirm its confidence for a government decision to join our allies and partners the United States the United Kingdom France Australia Denmark the Netherlands Belgium Jordan Saudi Arabia Bahrain the United Arab Emirates and likely others in launch air strikes against ISIL.
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There will be no ground combat mission which is explicitly ruled out in the resolution.
These contributions are for a period of up to six months.
Let me be clear on the objectives of this intervention. We intend to significantly degrade the capabilities of ISIL specifically its ability to either engage in military movements of scale or to operate bases in the open.
Column 1210: We will strike ISIL where—and only where—Canada has the clear support of the government of the country in question.
At present this is only true in Iraq. If it were to become the case in Syria then we will participate in air strikes against ISIL in that country also.
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[T]his intervention is necessary to ensure regional and global security and of course the security of Canadians. ISIL presents a very real threat. It is serious and explicitly directed against our country among others."""Consent of host stateISILIn-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2&DocId=6715248https://perma.cc/K5GS-Z6UX
Canada2015-03-24Statement by Prime Minister Stephen Harper; Minister for Foreign affairs Rob Nicholson; Minister of National Defence and Minister for Culticulturalism Jason Kenney Public Statement"Columns 1014/1015 [Stephen Harper]: ""The government is also seeking the support of the House for its decision to explicitly expand the air combat mission to include Syria. The government recognizes that ISIL's power base indeed the so-called caliphate's capital is in Syria. ISIL's fighters and much of its heavier equipment are moving freely across the Iraqi border into Syria in part for better protection against our air strikes. In our view ISIL must cease to have any safe haven in Syria. Let me also be clear that in expanding our air strikes into Syria the government has now decided we will not seek the express consent of the Syrian government. Instead we will work closely with our American and other allies who have already been carrying out such operations against ISIL over Syria in recent months.
In asking the House to support the government's decision to renew this mission for the next 12 months it is our intention for the same period that members of Canada's special forces will continue their non-combat mission to advise and assist the Iraqi forces and increase their capabilities to combat the so-called Islamic State.
Column 1415 [Stephen Harper]: The so-called Islamic State represents a threat not only to the region but also to the entire world including Canada. The actions and words of this organization make it clear that the government must take action and this government plans to take action. No one understands why the opposition would do nothing to protect Canadians.
Column 1419 [Stephen Harper]: First of all increasingly ISIL has sought safe haven refuge in Syria which we obviously want to prevent. On top of that our allies have been conducting operations against ISIL in Syria—some of our allies—over the past several months with some success. We think those operations are important. We think the mission is important. For the very fact that this mission is so important to the security of this country we intend to fully contribute.
Column 1420 [Stephen Harper]: These are the things we are doing to protect this country and to assist the Iraqis in doing a better job of safeguarding their own country.
Column 1424 [Stephen Harper]: The reality is that the Assad regime is not willing nor does it have the capacity to combat the Islamic State in Syria. To prevent the Islamic State from seeking refuge in Syria we believe it is necessary to work with our allies to mitigate this threat.
Column 1425 [Rob Nicholson]: Mr. Speaker we made it clear that we are not seeking the consent of the Assad regime. However we have indicated very clearly that ISIL cannot have a safe haven in Syria. Therefore we will conduct our missions on the same basis as our colleagues the Americans and our allies on the basis that ISIL is a threat to our colleagues our allies and to Canada itself.
Column 1425 [Stephen Harper]: [A]s our allies have indicated they are taking necessary and proportionate military action in Syria on the basis that the Government of Syria is unwilling or unable to prevent ISIL from staging operations and conducting attacks there including ultimately attacks that include this country as a target. That is the legal basis on which we are proceeding. The practical basis is that we are determined to do whatever we can to degrade ISIL and to eliminate the threat it poses to this country.
Column 1425 [Jason Kenney]: We are carrying out this military mission against the so-called Islamic State because it poses a threat to Canada Canadians and the entire world. We have a duty to act with our allies to confront this threat to global security."""Collective self-defense; Unable/unwillingISILAirstrikes (Syria); In-country training; Logistical support (Iraq)http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2&DocId=7891249https://perma.cc/Y3N4-UQKJ
Canada2014-03-26"Statement by Minister for Foreign affairs Rob Nicholson and Members of Parliament; Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Justice Robert Goguen; Minister of National Defence and Minister for Culticulturalism Jason Kenney; Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and for International Human Rights Deepak Obhrai; Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Foreign Affairs and La Francophonie Bernard Trottier; Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of National Defence James Bezan"Public Statement"Column 1020 [Rob Nicholson]: ""The facts are clear. ISIL has declared war on Canada by name and seeks to wage its jihad against our people.
Column 1025 [Rob Nicholson]: We ask that the Canadian Armed Forces conduct air strikes against ISIL targets in Syria on the same basis as our coalition allies: the threat that ISIL poses to Iraq.
Column 1035 [Robert Goguen]: Mr. Speaker it was pretty apparent from the hon. member's speech that the basis of our actions is a war that has been declared against Canada and its values and of course ISIL is the ominous enemy. It is pretty apparent that the objective of this mission is to protect Canadian citizens. While the war may seem very far away is it not true that in essence the whole issue of this war is to protect Canada's soil Canada's citizens and ultimately the public safety of law-abiding Canadian citizens? I wonder if the minister could comment on that objective.
Column 1035 [Rob Nicholson]: We have been very clear that there is a direct threat to Canada. ISIL has declared war on Canada. We have seen that. We have seen its rhetoric. We have seen its actions. We have made it very clear that yes we are there to support Iraq. We are there to support Syria. We are supporting our coalition partners in that area but in helping to degrade ISIL there we are helping to protect ourselves against this menace.
Column 1210 [Jason Kenney]: I believe it is incumbent upon us to act for humanitarian reasons. I believe doing so is consistent with the principle of the responsibility to protect. Admittedly the actual incarnation of that doctrine at the United Nations requires the approval of Vladimir Putin and the Chinese politburo. However we ought not to encumber Canadian policy with the approval of Vladimir Putin. We should be able to act independently to prevent genocide to prevent yet more victims from being claimed. We also have a national security imperative to do so because as members will know ISIS has explicitly declared war on Canada has called on its supporters to kill Canadians wherever they find them. It is rather evident that the two terror attacks on Canadian soil that took Patrice Vincent and Nathan Cirillo in October of last year were at least inspired by the barbarism of ISIL.
Column 1215 [Jason Kenney]: We now note ISIL moving some of its heavy equipment that has not yet been struck by allied aerial bombardments from Iraq back into Syria ... All of this indicates that in due course the centre of gravity of the fight against ISIL is likely to move westward into eastern Syria which is the centre of its operations. Its capital is located in Raqqa in central east Syria. This is an area that for all intents and purposes the brutal Syrian regime has ceded sovereignty over to ISIL. We therefore believe pursuant to legal advice received from our own Judge Advocate General and the position taken by President Obama's administration that we have every legal prerogative to pursue the ISIL targets in eastern Syria in part at the invitation of the government of Iraq under article 51 of the United Nations Charter to give practical expression to the collective right of self-defence. I believe this modest expansion of the mission and the one year horizon proposed in the motion provides precisely the kinds of rules of engagement that our military need to play a meaningful role in this international coalition.
Column 1335 [Rob Nicholson]: We have been very clear with respect to article 51 of the UN charter. We have indicated we are on the same legal basis. Iraq has asked for international assistance and we are going to do that.
Column 1525 [Deepak Obhrai]: We all believe that we not only have an obligation but a responsibility toward the innocent victims of ISIL. May I remind the House that it was Canada that spearheaded the discussion at the United Nations on the “responsibility to protect” following the Rwanda genocide. It proposed that when a state fails to protect its people either through a lack of ability or a lack of willingness the responsibility shifts to the broader international community ... Our security service continues to disrupt those who choose to target Canadians. We have to stop them ... ISIL must not find shelter in Syria. Hence this resolution authorizing extending the mission on ISIL in Syria before it becomes a global threat is essential.
Column 1615 [Bernard Trottier]: We have explained our position with respect to legal standing: article 51 of the UN Charter. We will be notifying the UN as per article 51. I think everybody agrees that there is a humanitarian disaster ... There is a military imperative on the ground in order to be able to save people from the brutality being put in place by ISIL.
Column 1715 [James Bezan]: Our air strikes have supported them and have degraded the capability of ISIL within Iraq but they are coalescing and consolidating their fighting team in eastern Syria. It is a lawless land in the east and ISIL has control. … We will go forward into Syria under the UN charter article 51 which clearly states that for self-defence or collective self-defence we have a right to go into another nation where attacks are being launched. The Government of Iraq has made the request. The United States has already reported to the UN that they will participate as they already have for several months and we will do the same to ensure that we degrade the capability of ISIL to carry out their terrorist attacks and brutality in the region and of course prevent them from being able to do it here in Canada or any other allied nation."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Responsibility to protectISILAirstrikeshttp://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=41&Ses=2&DocId=7900476https://perma.cc/5YJF-3N4X
Canada2015-03-31Letter from the chargé d'affaires of the Permanent Representative of Canada to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""Canada is taking necessary and proportionate measures in Syria in support of the collective self-defence of Iraq inaccordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations.
On June 25 and September 20 2014 Iraq wrote to the Security Council making clear that it was facing a serious threat of continuing attacks from Islamic state in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) emanating from safe havens in Syria. This threat persists and the attacks by ISIL from safe havens in Syria continue.
ISIL also continues to pose a threat not only to Iraq but also to Canada and Canadians as well as to other countries in the region and beyond. In accordance with the inherent rights of individual and collective self-defence reflected in Article 51 of the United Nations Charter states must be able to act in self-defence when the Government of the State where a threat is located is unwilling or unable to prevent attacks emanting from its territory."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Responsibility to protectISIL"Other: ""military acts"""http://repository.un.org/bitstream/handle/11176/310200/S_2015_221-EN.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=yhttps://perma.cc/4L8D-6KCX
Denmark2016-01-11Letter from the Permanent Representative of Denmark to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 letter"""I am writing in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to report to the Security Council that the Kingdom of Denmark as called for by the Council in its Resolution 2249 (2015) and in response to the request by the Government of Iraq is taking necessary and proportionate measures against the socalled Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL also known as Da’esh) in Syria in exercise of the inherent right of collective self-defence as part of international efforts led by the United States of America.
The Security Council recognized in its resolution 2249 (2015) that ISIL constitutes a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security. In this respect the Council noted the letters dated 25 June 2014 and 20 September 2014 from the Government of Iraq stating that ISIL has established a safe haven outside Iraq’s borders that is a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory. Furthermore the Council condemned the horrifying terrorist attacks perpetrated by ISIL including in Sousse Ankara Beirut and Paris and over Sinai and noted that ISIL has the capability and intention to carry out further attacks.
The Security Council called upon Member States to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed by ISIL and to eradicate the safe haven ISIL has established over significant parts of Iraq and Syria. In accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations the Kingdom of Denmark is taking measures against ISIL in support of this call."""Collective self-defenseISIL"Other: ""taking measures"" in support of the UN Security Council's call ""upon Member States to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed by ISIL and to eradicate the safe haven ISIL has established over significant parts of Iraq and Syria"""http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2016_34.pdfhttps://perma.cc/8BYG-59CN
France2014-09-22Press conference by Foreign Minister Laurent FabiusPublic Statement"""In our view international law does not prevent from reacting to ISIL's attacks either in Iraq or in Syria. That seems to us in our analysis to be part of lawful self-defence under Article 51 [of the UN Charter] ... But there is another aspect to be kept in mind - which the Syrian moderate opposition has indeed in mind - i.e. if attacks were carried out (and they will be carried out) against ISIL in Syria the Government of Bassar al-Assad should not take advantage of it; the choice as you have heard me say already cannot be between terrorists and dictators."
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[On the question whether France could carry out aistrikes in Syria without UN Security Council approval]""We will see if the question is raised but our legal advisers tell us that international law does not prevent it."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Il n'y a pas à notre sens d'empêchement juridique à ce que les attaques de Daech fassent l'objet de réactions aussi bien en Irak qu'en Syrie. Cela nous semble faire partie dans l'analyse que nous faisons de la possible légitime défense au titre de l'article 51 ... Et puis il y a un autre aspect à avoir à l'esprit - qu'évidemment l'opposition modérée a à l'esprit - c'est qu'il ne faut pas si des attaques sont menées - elles seront certainement menées - contre Daech en Syrie que ce soit le gouvernement de M. Bachar Al-Assad qui prenne le relais parce que vous m'avez déjà entendu dire cela le choix ne peut pas être entre les terroristes et les dictateurs.""
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[On the question whether France could carry out aistrikes in Syria without UN Security Council approval] ""Nous verrons si la question est soulevée mais nos analystes juridiques nous disent qu'il n'y a pas d'empêchement."" "Self-defense (unclear if collective or individual)ISILAirstrikeshttp://basedoc.diplomatie.gouv.fr/vues/Kiosque/FranceDiplomatie/kiosque.php?fichier=bafr2014-09-23.html#Chapitre13https://perma.cc/JC4V-EG7N
France2015-09-07Press conference of President HollandePublic Statement"""It is from Syria - we have evidence of this - that attacks against various countries and ours in particular are organized
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I have asked the Defence Minister that starting tomorrow reconnaissance flights over Syria be carried out; they will allow us to consider strikes against ISIS while safeguarding our autonomy of decision and action."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""[c]’est depuis la Syrie - nous en avons la preuve - que sont organisées des attaques contre plusieurs pays et notamment le nôtre
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[J]’ai demandé au ministre de la Défense que dès demain puissent être menés des vols de reconnaissance au-dessus de la Syrie ... Ils permettront d’envisager des frappes contre Daech en préservant notre autonomie de décision et d’action."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defenseISILReconnaissance flights; Potentially airstrikeshttp://www.elysee.fr/conferences-de-presse/article/6e-conference-de-presse-du-president-de-la-republique/https://perma.cc/R6U4-UWXK
France2015-09-08Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""By resolutions 2170 (2014) 2178 (2014) and 2199 (2015) in particular the Security Council has described the terrorist acts of Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) including abuses committed against the civilian populations of the Syrian Arab Republic and Iraq as a threat to international peace and security. Those acts are also a direct and extraordinary threat to the security of France.
In a letter dated 20 September 2014 addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2014/691) the Iraqi authorities requested the assistance of the international community in order to counter the attacks perpetrated by ISIL.
In accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations France has taken actions involving the participation of military aircraft in response to attacks carried out by ISIL from the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_745.pdfhttps://perma.cc/28S8-D2VT
France2015-10-09Statement by Defense Minister Le DrianPublic Statement"“""We struck because we know that in Syria particularly around Raqqa there are training camps for foreign fighters whose mission is not fight Daesh on the Levant but to come to France in Europe to carry out attacks."
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Le Drian said that the Islamic State was France’s “main enemy” and that Russian air strikes were mostly hitting Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s opponents in Syria and not Islamic State targets."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.france24.com/en/20151009-france-air-strikes-syria-isis-isil-daeshhttps://perma.cc/3RZ6-NKX6
France2015-11-16Address by President Hollande to the ParliamentPublic Statement"""France is at war. The acts committed Friday evening in Paris and close to the Stade de France are acts of war. They have killed at least 129 dead and wounded many others. They constitute an act of aggression against our country against its values against its youth against its lifestyle. They are the deed of a jihadist army the Daesh group that fights against us ... The despicable attack of which our country has been the target ... We are at war against the jihadist terrorism which threatens the whole world and not only France ... This war has gone on for some years now.
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The acts of war of Friday evening were decided planned in Syria prepared [sic]; they were organized in Belgium perpetrated on our soil with French connivances ... We are facing an organization Daesh which has a territorial base financial resources and military capacities. Since the beginning of the year the terrorist army of Daesh has struck notably in Paris Denmark Tunisia Egypt Liban Kuwait Saudi Arabia Turkey Libya.
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French will intensify its operations in Syria. Yesterday evening I ordered ten French fighters to bomb the stronghold of Daesh in Raqqa ... We will continue these strikes in the coming weeks ... It is not a matter of containing but of destroying this organization to save at the same time the peoples of Syria of Iraq but I could add of Liban Jordan Turkey all neighbouring countries. It is also a matter of protecting us to prevent foreign fighters from entering our terrirory and carrying out terrorist acts as it happened on Friday.
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I have demanded that the Defence minister approach her European counterparts on the basis of Article 42-7 of the Lisbon treaty which states that when a member State is the victim of aggression all other member States shall give him solidarity vis-à-vis this act of aggression as the enemy is not an enemy of France but is an enemy of Europe.
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Faced with the acts of warthat were carried out on our soil - and that follow the attacks of 7 8 and 9 January and many other crimes committed in the past few years in the name of this same djihadist ideology - we have to be pitiless ... With the acts of war of 13 November the enemy has made another step ... The war terrorism ... This new context of war.
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I have demanded that the Defence minister approach her European counterparts on the basis of Article 42-7 of the Lisbon treaty which states that when a member State is the victim of aggression all other member States shall give him solidarity vis-à-vis this act of aggression as the enemy is not an enemy of France but is an enemy of Europe.
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Faced with the acts of warthat were carried out on our soil - and that follow the attacks of 7 8 and 9 January and many other crimes committed in the past few years in the name of this same djihadist ideology - we have to be pitiless ... With the acts of war of 13 November the enemy has made another step ... The war terrorism ... This new context of war."" --PILAC Informal Translation """"La France est en guerre. Les actes commis vendredi soir à Paris et près du Stade de France sont des actes de guerre. Ils ont fait au moins 129 morts et de nombreux blessés. Ils constituent une agression contre notre pays contre ses valeurs contre sa jeunesse contre son mode de vie. Ils sont le fait d’une armée djihadiste le groupe Daech qui nous combat ... [L]’attaque ignoble dont notre pays a été la cible ... Nous sommes dans une guerre contre le terrorisme djihadiste qui menace le monde entier et pas seulement la France ... [C]ette guerre a commencé depuis plusieurs années.
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Les actes de guerre de vendredi ont été décidés planifiés en Syrie préparés; ils ont été organisés en Belgique perpétrés sur notre sol avec des complicités françaises ... Nous faisons face à une organisation Daech disposant d’une assise territoriale de ressources financières et de capacités militaires. Depuis le début de l’année l’armée terroriste de Daech a notamment frappé à Paris au Danemark en Tunisie en Egypte au Liban au Koweït en Arabie saoudite en Turquie en Libye.
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[L]a France intensifiera ses opérations en Syrie. Hier soir j’ai donné l’ordre à dix chasseurs-bombardiers français de larguer leurs bombes sur le fief de Daech à Raqqa ... [N]ous poursuivrons ces frappes au cours des semaines à venir ... Il ne s’agit donc pas de contenir mais de détruire cette organisation à la fois pour sauver des populations celles de Syrie celles d’Irak mais je pourrais ajouter celles du Liban de Jordanie de Turquie tous les pays voisins. C’est aussi de nous protéger pour éviter que viennent sur notre territoire comme ce fut le cas vendredi des combattants étrangers pour mener des actes terroristes ...
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J’ai demandé au ministre de la Défense de saisir dès demain ses homologues européens au titre de l’article 42-7 du traité de l’Union qui prévoit que lorsqu’un Etat est agressé tous les Etats membres doivent lui apporter solidarité face à cette agression car l’ennemi n’est pas un ennemi de la France c’est un ennemi de l’Europe.
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Face aux actes de guerre qui ont été commis sur notre sol - et qui viennent après les attentats du 7 8 et 9 janvier et tant d’autres crimes commis ces dernières années au nom de cette même idéologie djihadiste - nous devons être impitoyables ... Avec les actes de guerre du 13 novembre l’ennemi a franchi une nouvelle étape ... [L]e terrorisme de guerre ... [C]e contexte nouveau de guerre."" "Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Article 42-7 of the Lisbon TreatyISILAirstrikeshttp://www.senat.fr/evenement/archives/D46/hollande.htmlhttps://perma.cc/4FQL-YMVT
France2015-11-25"Statement by the Defence Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian in front of the Assemblée Nationale"Public Statement"""Until 13 November the self-defence argument invoked by France was chiefly collective self-defence. It relied indeed on therequest by Iraqi authorities that the international community help Iraq defend itself against the armed aggression of Daesh (which was acting from Syrian territory).
National security considerations and the exceptional threat posed by Daesh to our very country had had a heavy bearing on the decision to answer positively to the request of assistance by Iraq. But on 13 November this threat has sadly come into effect. France has been the victim of an armed aggression fomented and organized by Daesh. Therefore individual self-defence has now complemented collective self-defence on which we had been relying upon beforehand. Moreover the lawfulness of the military intervention in Syria and Iraq has just been upheld by the resolution 2249 of the UN Security Council which was adopted unanimously."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Jusqu’au 13 novembre la légitime défense invoquée par la France était à titre principal la légitime défense collective. Elle reposait en effet sur la demande d’assistance formulée par les autorités irakiennes auprès de la communauté internationale pour que celle-ci aide l’Irak à se défendre contre l’agression armée de Daech agissant sur le territoire syrien.
Des considérations de sécurité nationale et la menace exceptionnelle que faisait peser Daech sur notre propre pays avaient fortement influé sur la décision de répondre positivement à la demande d’assistance irakienne. Mais le 13 novembre cette menace s’est malheureusement concrétisée. La France a subi une agression armée fomentée et organisée par Daech. La légitime défense individuelle est donc venue compléter la légitime défense collective sur laquelle nous nous fondions. La légitimité de l’intervention militaire en Syrie et en Irak vient par ailleurs d’être confortée par la résolution 2249 du Conseil de sécurité des Nations unies adoptée à l’unanimité."" "Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; UNSC Resolution 2246ISILAirstrikeshttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/cri/2015-2016/20160065.asphttps://perma.cc/58GZ-AEF2
France2014-09-24Minister of Foreign Affairs Laurent Fabius quoted in newspaperPublic statement"""Paris which has intervened against IS in Iraq since September 19 has refused to extend its action considering that no legal and political framework could legitimize an intervention in Syria but the French position is likely to evolve.
On the eve of the first American strikes the head of the French diplomatic corps Laurent Fabius had indicated at a press conference in New York that he did not see any 'legal impediment to reactions against the attacks of [IS] in both Iraq and Syria' adding that he saw the 'possiblity of self-defense under Article 51.'"" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Paris qui intervient contre l'EI en Irak depuis le 19 septembre a refusé d'étendre son action estimant qu'aucun cadre juridique et politique ne pouvait légitimer une intervention en Syrie. Mais la position française est susceptible d'évoluer.
A la veille des premières frappes américaines le chef de la diplomatie française Laurent Fabius avait indiqué lors d'une conférence de presse à New York qu'il ne voyait pas « d'empêchement juridique à ce que les attaques de [l'EI] fassent l'objet de réactions aussi bien en Irak qu'en Syrie » ajoutant qu'il analysait 'la possible légitime défense au titre de l'article 51'."""Self-defense (unclear if collective or individual)ISILAirstrikeshttp://www.lemonde.fr/les-decodeurs/article/2014/09/24/quel-cadre-legal-pour-l-intervention-contre-l-etat-islamique-en-syrie_4492846_4355770.htmlhttps://perma.cc/HY2K-696V
France2015-09-18Interview with Minister of Defense Jean-Yves Le DrianInterview response"Q: ""Why did France change its strategy in Syria?"
A: ""There is an inflection but not a change of doctrine for three reasons: Since the beginning of the coalition and our ""Chammal"" operation in Iraq Daech ... has made great progress towards the West and on Syrian territory. To the point that they are today in the situation where they can threaten Aleppo and the very existence of groups linked to what is still called the Free Syrian Army. This progress goes so far as to disrupt the Damascus-Homs axis on the part still held by the forces of Bashar al-Assad. If this breakthrough occurs Lebanon will be threatened. Then we have a lot of evidence that there are now training centers for foreign combatants not only to contribute to the fighting of Daech in the Levant but to intervene in Europe France in particular.
Finally the perimeter of the forces loyal to Bashar has narrowed and today striking Daech does not mean militarily supporting Bashar. In its survey of threats and risks France can therefore not accept to have a blind spot on Syria."
Q: ""Is this the legal justification for the French operation?"
A: ""The legal framework is Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations which deals with self-defense."
Q: ""In this context would France only strike Daech? Not the Al-Nusra Front or other salafist groups? How are you going to make the distinction?
A: ""We have not yet struck we will act within the framework of international humanitarian law that applies to the situation of armed conflict in Syria."
Q: ""So they will be groups that have already targeted France?"
A: ""All those who threaten France."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Pourquoi la France a-t-elle changé de stratégie en Syrie?"
R: ""Il y a une inflexion mais pas un changement de doctrine. Et ce pour trois raisons. Depuis les débuts de la coalition et de notre opération « Chammal » en Irak Daech ... a beaucoup progressé vers l’ouest et sur le territoire syrien. Au point aujourd’hui d’être en situation de menacer Alep et l’existence même des groupes liés à ce que l’on appelle encore l’Armée syrienne libre. Cette progression va jusqu’à inquiéter l’axe Damas-Homs sur la partie toujours tenue par les forces de Bachar Al-Assad. Si cette percée se produit c’est le Liban qui sera menacé.
Ensuite nous avons beaucoup d’éléments qui montrent qu’existent désormais des centres de formation des combattants étrangers non plus uniquement en vue de contribuer aux combats de Daech au Levant mais pour intervenir en Europe en France en particulier.
Enfin le périmètre d’action des forces loyalistes à Bachar s’est réduit et aujourd’hui frapper Daech ne signifie pas militairement favoriser Bachar. Nous ne pouvons donc pas accepter d’avoir pour la France dans sa vision des menaces et des risques un angle mort sur la Syrie."
Q: ""C’est la justification légale de l’opération française ?"
R: ""Le cadre légal est l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations unies qui porte sur la légitime défense."
Q: ""Dans ce cadre la France frapperait Daech uniquement ? Pas le Front Al-Nosra ou d’autres groupes salafistes ? Comment allez-vous faire la distinction ?
R: ""Nous n’avons pas frappé encore. Nous agirons dans le cadre du droit international humanitaire qui s’applique à la situation de conflit armé que connaît la Syrie."
Q: ""Ce seront donc des groupes qui ont déjà visé la France ?"
R: ""Tous ceux qui menacent la France."""Self-defense (unclear if collective or individual)ISILAirstrikeshttp://www.lemonde.fr/proche-orient/article/2015/09/18/jean-yves-le-drian-il-existe-des-centres-de-formation-des-combattants-etrangers-en-syrie_4762295_3218.htmlhttps://perma.cc/GRG8-AVW4
France2016-10-25Speech by President François Hollande at the meeting of Defense Ministers of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL / DaeshPublic statement"""After the terrible attacks that took place in January and then in November 2015 I decided to reinforce our actions and strike Daech also in Syria because we know that it is this organization in Iraq and Syria that organized prepared and then carried out these acts and terrorist attacks in France and indeed in many other countries."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Après les attentats terribles qui ont eu lieu en janvier puis en novembre 2015 j’ai décidé de renforcer nos actions et de frapper Daech également en Syrie parce que nous savons que c’est cette organisation d’Irak et de Syrie qui a organisé préparé et hélas fait perpétrer ces actes et ces attaques terroristes en France et d’ailleurs dans beaucoup de pays. Vous êtes ici plusieurs à avoir été concernés."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-lors-de-la-reunion-des-ministres-de-la-defense-de-la-coalition-en-irak-et-en-syrie-2/https://perma.cc/9NKK-CRDK
France2016-10-25Speech by President François Hollande at the meeting of Defense Ministers of the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL / DaeshPublic statement"""We must also look at what we will have to do in the coming weeks. And I think notably of Raqqa. We know that a number of terrorists will go to Raqqa. Besides it will be - if Mosul falls - the last bastion of Daech. And that's why we have to work together so that we can set the next steps in the next operations.
We must ensure that Daech is eradicated and destroyed everywhere and that it can not establish another stronghold. For every stronghold will be a threat to our own interests and our own security. What is engaged is very important through the operation of Mosul; It will require all the precautions I have indicated all the vigilances that are indispensable all the operations that we must also pursue on the ground but we must not lose the ultimate goal of winning the war against Daech."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Nous devons aussi regarder ce que nous aurons à faire dans les prochaines semaines. Et je pense notamment à Raqqa. Nous sommes conscients qu’un certain nombre de terroristes vont aller vers Raqqa. Ce sera d’ailleurs si Mossoul tombe le dernier bastion de Daech. Et c’est la raison pour laquelle vous devez travailler ensemble pour que nous puissions fixer les étapes des prochaines opérations.
Nous devons faire en sorte que Daech soit éradiquée et détruite partout et qu’elle ne puisse pas se constituer encore une place forte. Car toute place forte sera une menace pour nos propres intérêts et pour notre propre sécurité."""Individual self-defenseISIL"“operations on the ground"""http://basedoc.diplomatie.gouv.fr/vues/Kiosque/FranceDiplomatie/kiosque.php?fichier=bafr2016-10-25.html#Chapitre2https://perma.cc/DFQ8-MV45
France2016-10-20Speech by President François Hollande at the opening of the international ministerial-level meeting on Mosul stabilityPublic statement"""We must also be exemplary in the pursuit of those terrorists who are already leaving Mosul to join Raqqa. We can not accept that there can simply be as a success a shift an evaporation of those who were in Mosul to other places where they could again carry out actions."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Nous devons être également exemplaires sur le plan de la poursuite des terroristes qui déjà quittent Mossoul pour rejoindre Raqqa. Nous ne pouvons pas admettre qu'il puisse y avoir simplement comme réussite une translation une évaporation de ceux qui étaient à Mossoul vers d'autres lieux où ils pourraient là encore mener des actions."""UnclearISILUnclearhttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-du-president-de-la-republique-a-l-occasion-de-l-ouverture-de-la-reunion-de-haut-niveau-pour-la-stabilite-de-mossoul/https://perma.cc/5GP2-6452
France2016-09-08"Speech by President François Hollande at the symposium on ""La Démocratie face au terrorisme"""Public statement"""This war is a new kind of war. It poses a global challenge to democracies and that is why France has embarked on a long journey like this: fighting in a foreign country our militaries defend us because it is the same threat because they are the same murderers we have to face in Mali Syria Iraq and at home.
To let terrorists build up their power there is to strengthen their influence here. Therefore France will pursue this fight obstinately."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Cette guerre elle est d’un nouveau genre. Aux démocraties elle lance un défi planétaire et c’est la raison pour laquelle la France s’est engagée au loin comme ici. En se battant en pays étranger nos armées nous défendent parce que c’est la même menace parce que ce sont les mêmes meurtriers que nous devons affronter au Mali en Syrie en Irak et chez nous.
Laisser les terroristes bâtir leur puissance là-bas c’est renforcer leur influence ici. Alors la France poursuivra obstinément ce combat."""Individual self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-au-colloque-la-democratie-face-au-terrorisme-2/https://perma.cc/V3UF-AGE7
France2016-07-22Statement by by President François Hollande at the conclusion of the Defense Council meetingPublic statement"""I renew my compassion and the solidarity of the whole nation with regard to the victims many are foreigners 18 nationalities are concerned even if it was France that was attacked on July 14 it is the world which was targeted by terrorists.
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Daesh claimed responsibility for the attack and there is little doubt that the killer was inspired by this propaganda to commit his horrible crime.
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But we have to face the reality the terrorist threat is there and I have never hidden it how could I have done it when for 4 years now our country has been the victim of terrorist attacks. This threat is at a high level.
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This threat will last. It does not only concern France but today many countries are victims of it but we must defend ourselves here on our soil to protect ourselves and outside to eradicate terrorism. ... This battle against terrorism this war it also takes place outside in Syria and Iraq.
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Similarly the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle will be deployed ... in the region at the end of September. It will allow us to intensify the strikes on terrorist groups in Syria and Iraq with our Rafale aircraft.
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It is not a question of changing the nature of our intervention. We support our allies in Iraq and Syria but we do not deploy troops on the ground. We have advice to give training to be delivered but it is not our soldiers who are waging war on the ground in Syria and Iraq."" -- PILAC Informal Translation""""Je renouvelle ma compassion et la solidarité de toute la Nation à l’égard des victimes beaucoup sont d’ailleurs étrangères 18 nationalités sont concernées même si c’est la France qui a été attaquée le 14 juillet c’est le monde qui était ciblé par les terroristes.
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Daesh a revendiqué l’attentat et il ne fait guère de doute que le tueur s’était inspiré de cette propagande pour commettre son horrible crime.
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Mais nous devons regarder la réalité en face la menace terroriste est là et je ne l’ai jamais dissimulée comment aurais-je pu le faire alors que depuis 4 ans notre pays est victime d’attaques terroristes.
Cette menace est à un niveau élevé. Nous avons déjoué bon nombre d’attentats sans avoir eu besoin de le révéler tant il nous paraissait indispensable d’appréhender les auteurs et de faire en sorte qu’ils puissent être hors d’état de nuire. Cette menace va durer. Elle ne concerne pas que la France beaucoup de pays aujourd'hui en sont victimes mais nous nous devons nous défendre ici sur notre sol pour nous protéger et à l’extérieur pour éradiquer le terrorisme.
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Cette bataille contre le terrorisme cette guerre elle se mène également à l’extérieur en Syrie et en Irak.
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De même le porte-avions Charles De Gaulle sera déployé [...] dans la région à la fin du mois de septembre. Il nous permettra d’intensifier les frappes sur les groupes terroristes en Syrie et en Irak avec nos avions Rafale.
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Il ne s’agit pas de changer la nature de notre intervention. Nous soutenons nos alliés en Irak et en Syrie mais nous ne déployons pas de troupes au sol.
Nous avons des conseils à donner des formations à livrer mais ce ne sont pas nos soldats qui font la guerre au sol en Syrie et en Irak."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/declaration-a-l-issue-du-conseil-de-defense-4/https://perma.cc/W339-2QGT
France2016-04-19Address by President François Hollande to the forces of operation ChammalPublic statement"""I wanted to come to this air base today on the occasion of my visit to Jordan. For the past eighteen months 350 French soldiers have been taking turns to be present in the theaters of operations in Iraq and Syria.
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This mission is dangerous. But it is imperative in the face of the threat of Islamist terrorism. I ordered the engagement of the French armies in the Levant on September 19 2014. On November 7 of that same year the Air Force - I greet its leader - deployed on this base with six Mirage 2000. After the attacks of January and November 2015 I decided to intensify the strikes against Daech. Two additional Mirage reinforced the detachement here in Jordan. It was the same from the Emirates. Thanks to you we were able to double the number of strikes. To date nearly 4000 French sorties of bombing intelligence control and in-flight refueling have been carried out in Iraq and Syria as part of Operation Chammal. Here you are five minutes flying from Syria ten minutes from Iraqi airspace and 40 minutes from the sanctuaries of Daech. It is this proximity that makes this site strategic and allows us to act: to act in depth to act quickly and to act in the long term.
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Our presence is constantly adapting which is what makes it effective that it can be appropriate that it can face the threat. For a few weeks Atlantic 2 has been based here permanently; Mirage 2000N coming from Istres participated for several months in operations alongside the aircraft of the Nancy base. Since February 19 eight Mirage 2000 are in action.
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The results are there your results. The results of what our armies as part of the coalition were able to achieve. Daech declined lost about 25% 30% perhaps more of the territory it occupied in September 2014 when I decided to act with the coalition. We have disorganized its structure by hitting the command centers reducing its capacity to act by targeting the logistics and training centers. We also touched on the financing of Daech by attacking the oil infrastructures. That is what you contributed to against this enemy that struck us as it was from Syria that the attacks that struck Paris and Saint-Denis on 13 November were planned decided and prepared. So in doing so you are protecting our fellow citizens and our territory.
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You also know that the fight will be long and it is essential because the threat is still there and it concerns us directly our country our territory our families our fellow citizens."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""J’ai tenu à venir aujourd’hui sur cette base aérienne à l’occasion de ma visite en Jordanie. Depuis dix-huit mois 350 militaires français se relaient pour être présents sur les théâtres d’opérations en Irak et en Syrie.
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Cette mission est dangereuse. Mais elle est impérieuse face à la menace du terrorisme islamiste. J’ai ordonné l’engagement des armées françaises au Levant le 19 septembre 2014. Le 7 novembre de cette même année l’Armée de l’Air – j’en salue son chef – s’est déployée sur cette base avec six Mirage 2000. Après les attentats de janvier et de novembre 2015 j’ai décidé d’intensifier les frappes contre Daech. Deux Mirage supplémentaires ont renforcé le dispositif ici en Jordanie. Il en a été de même à partir des Emirats.
Grâce à vous nous avons pu doubler le nombre de frappes. A ce jour près de 4 000 vols français de bombardement de renseignement de contrôle de ravitaillement en vol ont été conduits en Irak et en Syrie dans le cadre de l’opération Chammal.
Ici vous êtes à cinq minutes de vol de la Syrie à dix minutes de l’espace aérien irakien et à 40 minutes des sanctuaires de Daech. C’est cette proximité qui fait que ce site est stratégique et qu’il nous permet d’agir : d’agir en profondeur d’agir vite et d’agir dans la durée.
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Notre dispositif s’adapte en permanence c’est ce qui fait aussi qu’il peut être efficace qu’il peut être approprié qu’il peut faire face à la menace. Depuis quelques semaines l’Atlantique 2 est basé ici de façon permanente ; des Mirage 2000N venus d’Istres ont participé pendant plusieurs is aux opérations aux côtés des appareils de la base de Nancy. Depuis le 19 février ce sont huit Mirage 2000 qui sont en action.
Les résultats sont là vos résultats. Les résultats de ce que nos armées dans le cadre de la coalition ont pu obtenir. Daech a reculé a perdu environ 25% 30 % peut-être davantage du territoire qu’il occupait en septembre 2014 lorsque j’ai décidé d’agir avec la coalition. Nous avons désorganisé sa structure en frappant les centres de commandement réduit ses capacités d’action en ciblant les centres logistiques et d’entrainement. Nous avons touché aussi au financement de Daech en attaquant les infrastructures pétrolières.
Voilà ce à quoi vous avez contribué par rapport à cet ennemi qui nous a frappés parce que c’est de Syrie qu’ont été programmés décidés préparés les attentats qui ont frappé Paris et Saint-Denis le 13 novembre. Donc en agissant ainsi vous protégez nos concitoyens et notre territoire.
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Vous savez aussi que le combat sera encore long et qu’il est essentiel car la menace est toujours là et elle nous concerne directement notre pays notre territoire nos familles nos concitoyens."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILAirstrikes; In-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-aux-forces-francaises-de-l-operation-chammal-2/https://perma.cc/J5YJ-WYVP
France2016-04-19Address by President François Hollande to the forces of operation ChammalPublic statement"""Of course military action cannot be enough. Together with the Government and friendly countries I have to find the political conditions for a lasting solution. This is what is being attempted now with great difficulty in the so-called inter-Syrian negotiations.
France wants to associate all the countries that want to end the war in Syria. We also want the truce to be respected that the civilian population can be protected and that there is a lasting solution in these negotiations with a Syrian state that can allow the reconstruction of the country.
The Syrian opposition the one you support through the actions you lead has demonstrated to be constructive. The breaches of the cease-fire at this very moment today do not come from the opposition but from the regime.
So that is the meaning I want to give to your actions and operations. We need military action to be able to weigh politically."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Bien sûr que l’action militaire ne peut à elle-même suffire. Je dois avec le Gouvernement et les pays amis trouver les conditions politiques d’une solution durable. C’est ce qui se joue en ce moment avec beaucoup de difficultés dans ce qu’on appelle les négociations inter-syriennes.
La France veut associer tous les pays qui veulent qu’on en termine avec la guerre en Syrie. Nous voulons également que la trêve puisse être respectée que les populations civiles puissent être protégées et qu’il y ait une solution durable dans le cadre de ces négociations avec un Etat syrien qui puisse permettre la reconstruction du pays.
L’opposition syrienne celle que vous soutenez à travers les actions que vous menez a montré qu’elle était constructive. Les manquements au cessez-le-feu en ce moment même aujourd’hui même ne viennent pas de l’opposition mais du régime.
Alors voilà le sens que je veux donner à votre action à vos opérations. Nous avons besoin de l’action militaire pour justement pouvoir peser sur le plan politique. En venant sur cette base ici je mesure combien le royaume jordanien est en première ligne contre Daech tout près d’ici. Nous lui assurons notre coopération militaire. C’est vous aussi qui en êtes l’illustration vivante. En même temps que vous permettez de réaliser les objectifs que j’ai fixés."""UnclearUnclearUnclearhttp://www.elysee.fr/declarations/article/discours-aux-forces-francaises-de-l-operation-chammal-2/https://perma.cc/87TG-FCV8
France2016-10-27"Press briefing by Jean-Marc Ayrault Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development"Public statement"Q: ""Do you think that the liberation of Mosul is a matter of time? Do you believe that there will be new movements of jihadists that could increase the risk and threat of terrorist attacks against Europe and in particular in France?
A: We are fighting a determined fight against terrorism that of Daech in Iraq. We are also fighting al-Qaeda and Boko Haram in Africa and we must overcome this scourge. Mosul was the self-proclaimed capital of Daech in Iraq. It was the responsibility of the Iraqi government of the Iraqi military forces that the coalition is contributing to this battle to bring down Daech in Mosu. It is a difficult battle and it will be won. But of course we have to be careful to protect civilian populations and possible refugees together with the UN and with non-governmental organizations - this is very important. We must also continue to prosecute Daech fighters who might be tempted to escape and who may be able to get to Raqqa.
Hence the importance of having a strategic vision complete within the framework of the international coalition against Daech and therefore worry about what will happen next in Raqqa. Because we know that Raqqa is like Mosul another capital for Daech for the organization of attacks in the Middle East but also in Europe and therefore obviously in France. This battle must be won."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Pensez-vous que la libération de Mossoul est une question de temps ? Est-ce que vous croyez qu'il y aura un nouveau mouvement de déplacement des djihadistes qui pourrait accentuer le risque et les menaces d'attaques terroristes contre l'Europe et en particulier en France?
R: Nous menons un combat déterminé contre le terrorisme celui de Daech en Irak. Nous combattons al-Qaïda aussi et Boko Haram en Afrique. Il faut vaincre ce fléau. Mossoul c'était la capitale autoproclamée de Daech en Irak. Il était de la responsabilité du gouvernement irakien des forces militaires irakiennes que la coalition contribue à cette bataille à faire tomber Daech à Mossoul. C'est une bataille difficile et elle va être gagnée. Mais bien sûr il faut veiller à protéger les populations civiles et les éventuels réfugiés et ceci avec les Nations unies avec les organisations non-gouvernementales c'est très important. Il faut aussi veiller à continuer à poursuivre les combattants de Daech qui seraient tentés de s'échapper et qui pourraient se retrouver à Raqqa.
D'où l'importance d'avoir une vision stratégique complète dans le cadre de la coalition internationale contre Daech et donc se préoccuper de ce qui va se passer ensuite à Raqqa. Car nous savons que Raqqa est comme Mossoul une autre capitale pour Daech pour l'organisation des attentats au Moyen-Orient mais aussi en Europe et donc évidemment en France. Cette bataille il faut la gagner."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://basedoc.diplomatie.gouv.fr/vues/Kiosque/FranceDiplomatie/kiosque.php?fichier=bafr2016-10-27.htmlhttps://perma.cc/XQ98-8YCV
France2016-10-25Press briefing on foreign policyPublic statement"Q: ""What is France's position regarding the Turkish campaign against Kurdish fighters supported by the international coalition? And how does it respond to the call of the Kurds of Syria asking the international community especially France to put pressure on Ankara?
A: As the minister recalled yesterday in Ankara we have a common enemy Daech. All our efforts must be focused on the fight against this terrorist group."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Quelle est la position de la France concernant la campagne turque menée contre des combattants kurdes que la coalition internationale soutient ? Et que répond-elle à l'appel des Kurdes de Syrie demandant à la communauté internationale notamment à la France d'exercer des pressions sur Ankara?"
R: ""Comme l'a rappelé le ministre hier à Ankara nous avons un ennemi commun Daech. Tous nos efforts doivent se concentrer sur la lutte contre ce groupe terroriste.
...En Syrie la situation est malheureusement différente. Face aux Kurdes et à l'opposition soutenue par la coalition et la Turquie Daech a perdu du terrain dans la poche de Manbij et dans ses dernières localités frontalières dont Jarabulus. Les Turcs menacent de se porter vers al-Bab et tiennent leur «zone de sécurité». Il sera difficile pour nous de réunir les forces nécessaires pour libérer Raqqa ce qui reste pour moi un objectif majeur."""Collective self-defenseISIL; Kurdish fightersUnclearhttp://basedoc.diplomatie.gouv.fr/vues/Kiosque/FranceDiplomatie/kiosque.php?fichier=bafr2016-10-25.htmlhttps://perma.cc/U3J7-E4FU
France2016-10-11"Hearing of Mr Jean-Yves Le Drian Minister of Defense in the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the National Assembly"Public statement"""In Syria the situation is unfortunately different. Faced with the Kurds and the opposition - backed by the coalition and Turkey - Daech lost ground in the pocket of Manbij and in its last border towns including Jarabulus. The Turks threaten to move towards al-Bab and maintain their ""security zone."" It will be difficult for us to unite the forces necessary to free Raqqa which remains a major objective for me.
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The fighters of Daech who strike the French territory are in Mosul and Raqqa. ... It is therefore in these two cities that we must strike ... since that is where our enemies come from. The perpetrators of the Paris bombings were induced by sponsors in one or the other city. In other words we must take Mosul. ... I recognize that this battle will not be simple but to renounce it would expose us to the risk of new attacks which I can not accept.
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From my point of view the main question concerns Raqqa. ... The scenario envisaged is that of the continuation of the operation which allowed the Syrian democratic forces to resume Manbij with the Kurds. Will the forces mobilized however be sufficient to attack Raqqa? This question has not yet been resolved ... No doubt there will be street fights in Mosul as in Raqqa and certainly in Mosul a large city where there are many underground facilitites. That being said I recall that all the threats of attacks detected by the Ministry of the Interior come either from Raqqa or from Mosul."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""En Syrie la situation est malheureusement différente. Face aux Kurdes et à l'opposition soutenue par la coalition et la Turquie Daech a perdu du terrain dans la poche de Manbij et dans ses dernières localités frontalières dont Jarabulus. Les Turcs menacent de se porter vers al-Bab et tiennent leur «zone de sécurité». Il sera difficile pour nous de réunir les forces nécessaires pour libérer Raqqa ce qui reste pour moi un objectif majeur.
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Les combattants de Daech qui frappent le territoire français se trouvent à Mossoul et à Raqqa. ... C'est donc dans ces deux villes que nous devons frapper ... puisque c'est de là que proviennent nos ennemis. Les auteurs des attentats de Paris étaient diligentés par des commanditaires se trouvant dans l'une ou l'autre ville. Autrement dit il faut prendre Mossoul. ... Je reconnais que cette bataille ne sera pas simple mais y renoncer nous exposerait au risque de nouveaux attentats ce que je ne peux accepter.
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De mon point de vue la question principale concerne Raqqa. ... Le scénario envisagé est celui de la poursuite de l'opération qui a permis aux forces démocratiques syrienne de reprendre Manbij avec les Kurdes. Les forces mobilisées néanmoins seront-elles suffisantes pour attaquer Raqqa? Cette question n'est pas encore résolue.
Sans doute y aura-t-il des combats de rue à Mossoul comme à Raqqa et même certainement à Mossoul une grande ville où les souterrains sont nombreux. Cela étant dit je rappelle que toutes les menaces d'attentat que détecte le ministère de l'intérieur viennent soit de Raqqa soit de Mossoul."""Individual self-defenseISILN/Ahttp://basedoc.diplomatie.gouv.fr/vues/Kiosque/FranceDiplomatie/kiosque.php?fichier=bafr2016-10-25.htmlhttps://perma.cc/5DRW-ZSN2
France2016-07-21Excerpts from the daily press briefing (21.07.16)Public statement"Q: ""The Syrian minister of foreign affairs is accusing France of being behind the air strike on the city of Manbij. Do you confirm this? The Syrian opposition is calling for the suspension of the coalition-led air strikes. What is France’s position regarding this?
A: We do not give any credence to statements made by Bashar al-Assad’s regime.
On the sidelines of a meeting of the defense ministers of the coalition in Washington devoted to the fight against Daesh the United States announced the opening of an investigation. This investigation will determine whether the strikes by the coalition to counter Daesh have resulted in civilian casualties in Manbij."""Collective self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files/syria/events/article/syria-q-a-excerpts-from-the-daily-press-briefing-21-07-16https://perma.cc/HC69-FXEF
France2013-09-04Syria – Government Declaration and Debate at the National Assembly and Senate Speech by Laurent Fabius at the SenatePublic statement"""In the early hours of August 21 a few kilometers from the center of Damascus nearly 1500 civilians including hundreds of children died asphyxiated in their sleep. Murdered by the Syrian regime in what represents in the early days of this century the most massive and most terrifying use of chemical weapons.
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It is therefore certain: There was indeed a massive chemical attack on August 21 in the Ghouta plain for which the Syrian regime bears full responsibility.
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Given these indisputable facts what should we choose: action or resignation? Can we be satisfied with condemning them and with calling on the international community to wake up to finally begin the peace negotiations that have not been forthcoming?
Ladies and Gentlemen Senators President Hollande offered a clear response to these questions one in line with France’s mobilization since the beginning of the Syrian crisis.
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Not responding would be allowing the massive use of chemical weapons to go unpunished.
Not responding would be endangering the peace and security of the entire region and beyond that our own security. For – we must ask – what would it do to the credibility of our international commitments when it comes to halting the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction including nuclear weapons? What message would we be sending other regimes such as Iran or North Korea?
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For all of these reasons President Hollande has chosen to take action: legitimate collective and considered action.
Legitimate first of all because the Syrian regime has violated its international obligations on a massive scale. By using chemical weapons Bashar al-Assad has violated his obligations under the 1925 Protocol which prohibits their use and which Syria ratified in 1968. He has flouted international humanitarian law by carrying out indiscriminate attacks which are banned under the Geneva Conventions. He has committed a war crime. He has committed what the UN Secretary-General described as a crime against humanity.
In addition to these violations the Syrian regime has continuously refused to cooperate with the international community. By preventing the International Commission of Inquiry access to monitor human rights. By refusing to allow inspectors to investigate the presence of chemical weapons. By dismissing the various attempts to broker a ceasefire. By increasing the number of obstacles to humanitarian action in Syria.
Of course the explicit authorization of the Security Council would be preferable. But let’s look at the reality. Russia and China have blocked any response to the Syrian tragedy for two and a half years now including by exercising their veto three times. Our attempt a week ago to propose a draft resolution authorizing a strong response to the chemical attack on August 21 was also stopped dead in its tracks.
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The seriousness of the threat associated with the use of chemical weapons compels us to take action.
The action we’re proposing is considered and collective. President Hollande stated that it should be – I quote – 'firm and proportionate.' A one-time response with meaningful but targeted objectives. There is no question of sending in ground troops. There is no question of launching military operations to overthrow the regime.
Of course we want to see the departure of Mr. Bashar al-Assad who doesn’t hesitate to directly threaten our country and who even believes he can intimidate the national representatives. Yes we want to see his departure within the framework of a political solution. France will continue to take the lead in promoting a political solution.
Our message is clear: the use of chemical weapons is unacceptable. We want to both penalize and deter to respond to this atrocity in order to prevent it from happening again. We also want to show Bashar al-Assad that the only option he has is to negotiate.
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Senators in the face of barbarity doing nothing is not an option in any case not for France. By not responding we allow Bashar al-Assad to continue his atrocities encourage the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction leave Syria and the entire region to fall into chaos and give in to threats. Together with its partners France will therefore assume its responsibilities."" -- Official Translation"Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Other: Ressponsibility to ProtectAssad regimeUnclearhttp://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files/syria/events/article/syria-government-declaration-andhttps://perma.cc/A8Y2-H6VG
France2013-08-30"Excerpts from the interview given by François Hollande President of the Republic to the daily newspaper Le Monde"Interview response"Q: ""How legal would military action be?
A: The 1925 [Geneva] Protocol bans the use of chemical weapons. Gassing a population constitutes as Ban Ki-moon has said himself a crime against humanity. That’s why the matter has been referred to the UN and an inspection mission has been sent to the site. But the fear exists that whatever the evidence the Security Council might be prevented from adopting the resolution necessary for action. It’s been in deadlock for two years over Syria.
Q: And what if it remains deadlocked?
A: The Damascus chemical massacre cannot and must not remain unpunished. Otherwise it would mean taking the risk of an escalation that would trivialize the use of those weapons and threaten other countries. I’m not in favour of an international intervention aimed at “liberating” Syria or overthrowing the dictator but I believe the regime must be stopped from committing the irreparable against its population.
Q: What are the goals of war?
A: I wouldn’t talk about a war but about punishing a monstrous human rights violation. It will act as a deterrent. Not acting would mean letting it happen. The civil war in Syria has lasted too long. It’s claimed 100000 lives. France took initiatives very early on. In the summer of 2012 it brought together the Friends of Syria and recognized the [Syrian] National Coalition as the sole legitimate representative of the Syrian people. It provided it with its political support then material and humanitarian assistance and more recently military resources with due respect for our European commitments. Today a threshold in horror has been crossed. And it’s reaction not inertia that will ensure a political solution prevails.
Q: What form may the intervention take?
A: All options are on the table. France wants proportionate and firm action against the Damascus regime.
Q: What countries would be led to intervene?
A: If the Security Council is prevented from acting a coalition will be formed. It will have to be as broad as possible. It will draw on the Arab League which has condemned the crime and alerted the international community. It will have the Europeans’ support. But there are few countries with the capability to inflict punishment through appropriate means. France is one of them. It’s ready. It will decide on its position in close liaison with its allies.
Q: The first parliament consulted – that of the United Kingdom – has refused the principle of an operation in Syria. Can we act without our traditional British allies?
A: Yes. Each country has the sovereign right to participate in an operation or not. That’s true of both the UK and France. Today I’ll be having an in-depth discussion with Barack Obama.
Q: How is this choice different from what the American Neoconservatives may have been criticized for in terms of armed intervention?
A: In Iraq the intervention was carried out when no proof had been provided regarding the existence of weapons of mass destruction. In Syria unfortunately chemical weapons have been used. In fact the operation in Iraq was aimed at overthrowing the regime. No such thing for the response envisaged in Syria. Since the beginning of the civil war France has stubbornly been seeking a political solution. What has changed since 21 August is the chemical massacre. It’s a red line defined a year ago which has undeniably been crossed."""Other: Responsibility to ProtectAssad regime"Other: ""proportionate and firm response"""http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files/syria/events/article/syria-excerpts-from-the-interviewhttps://perma.cc/A835-HYR5
France2015-10-02"Interview with Le Monde newspaper - Syria (2 October 2015)"Interview response"Q: ""You and President Hollande have voiced your support for a no-fly zone in Syria. Doesn’t that effectively mean entering into direct conflict with Syria?
A: We want to put an end to the indiscriminate bombing carried out by the regime especially the use of barrel bombs and chlorine which are responsible for many of the civilian deaths and a mass exodus. We are closely examining the question of whether we can and should ban the Syrian air force from flying over certain areas where the civilian population is particularly targeted. Protecting civilians is a priority.
Q: Is it possible to establish such zones without deploying ground troops?
A: There are several options but let us be clear about this: France absolutely does not intend to deploy ground troops in Syria. Moreover no Western country is envisaging or suggesting this. External powers will not be able to restore security in Syria. That is up to the Syrian people themselves or regional forces."""Other: Responsibility to ProtectAssad regimeNo-fly zonehttp://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/country-files/syria/events/article/interview-with-le-monde-newspaper-syria-10-02-15https://perma.cc/GMA6-ZFEQ
France2015-10-02"Reply by the Secretariat of State to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development in charge of European affairs
Published in the JO Sénat of 02/10/2015 - page 9065"Public statement"Q: ""So on Sunday our air force carried out strikes against a training camp of the Islamic State in eastern Syria. As in the Sahel as in Iraq these operations are aimed at ""protecting our territory"" and ""acting in self-defense"". Actions against France have been planned and prepared from Syria. In the face of these dangers we can not remain inactive. It is the existence of our democratic societies our common future with the Middle East and the African continent.
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Do you confirm today that in the light of recent events we will maintain our firm attitude towards Bashar al-Assad? Are we going to intensify our offensive in Syria? What is the sequence of operations?
A: This war that has been tearing Syria apart for four and a half years has to stop and the barbarian of Daech must be defeated as soon as possible. Military action is necessary and France is committed to it. Today it is France that strikes Daech in Syria it is not Russia! We should all be behind the French forces when they attack this terrorist group that threatens international security and the security of the French!
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Our strategy is therefore global. It includes action against Daech jihadi-terrorists a political process in the framework agreed in Geneva in June 2012 and let's not forget massive aid to neighboring countries so that refugees can continue to be welcomed in the best conditions.
We are therefore always on the initiative to bring about a political solution in this country to protect the French and to fight terrorism."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Ainsi dimanche notre aviation a mené des frappes contre un camp d'entraînement de l'État islamique dans l'est de la Syrie. Comme au Sahel comme en Irak ces opérations visent à « protéger notre territoire » à « agir en légitime défense ». Des actions contre la France sont planifiées préparées depuis la Syrie. Face à ces dangers nous ne pouvons rester inactifs. Il y va de l'existence de nos sociétés démocratiques de notre avenir commun avec le Moyen-Orient et le continent africain.
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Pouvez-vous nous confirmer aujourd'hui qu'à l'aune des derniers événements nous maintiendrons notre attitude de fermeté face à Bachar al-Assad ? Allons-nous en parallèle intensifier notre offensive en Syrie ? Quelle est la suite des opérations?"
R: Cette guerre qui déchire la Syrie depuis quatre ans et demi doit cesser et les barbares de Daech doivent être vaincus au plus vite. L'action militaire est nécessaire et la France y est engagée.
Aujourd'hui c'est la France qui frappe Daech en Syrie ce n'est pas la Russie ! Nous devrions tous être derrière les forces françaises lorsqu'elles s'attaquent à ce groupe terroriste qui menace la sécurité internationale et la sécurité des Français! ...
Notre stratégie est donc globale. Elle inclut une action contre les djihado-terroristes de Daech un processus politique dans le cadre agréé à Genève au mois de juin 2012 et ne l'oublions pas une aide massive aux pays voisins pour que les réfugiés puissent continuer à y être accueillis dans les meilleures conditions.
Nous sommes donc en permanence à l'initiative pour faire émerger une solution politique dans ce pays pour protéger les Français et pour combattre le terrorisme."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.senat.fr/basile/visio.do?id=qSEQ15100577G&idtable=q259794|q243662|q249253|q305880|q265459|q303893|q304415|q241301|q250066|q304897&_c=syrie&rch=qs&de=20110101&au=20161030&rqg=dqrnsctpa&dp=1+an&radio=deau&aff=ar&tri=p&off=0&afd=ppr&afd=ppl&afd=pjl&afd=cvnhttps://perma.cc/FFH7-8EVH
France2015-12-03Question of M. Jean-Paul Fournier published on 06/18/2015 & Response of the Ministry of Defense published on 12/03/2015 - Formal written correspondence"Q: ""Furthermore Mr. Jean-Paul Fournier ... asks him [the Minister of Defense] if France is planning to bomb the positions of the Islamic terrorist state in Syria as it has done in Iraq since nine month.
A: The progress and the activities developed by Daech in Syria constitute a factor of destabilization for the whole Middle East. From the Syrian territory the terrorist group structures its channels of recruitment of foreign nationals and and constantly fosters its propaganda through the staging of barbaric acts on social networks. It also organizes the jihadist threat directed against France and contributes to the aggravation of the Syrian crisis and to the amplification of migratory phenomena in the region. The President of the Republic fully determined to fight against Daech announced on September 7 2015 his decision to intiate reconnaissance flights over Syria starting from the military deployed by France in the framework of Operation Chammal. In light of the initial lessons learned from this reconnaissance phase the French air force began its strikes against Daech's positions in Syria as of September 27."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Aussi M. Jean-Paul Fournier … il lui [M. le ministre de la défense] demande si la France projette de bombarder les positions de l'état terroriste islamique en Syrie comme elle le fait en Irak depuis bientôt neuf mois.
R: La progression et les activités développées par Daech en Syrie constituent un facteur de déstabilisation de l'ensemble du Moyen-Orient. À partir du territoire syrien le groupe terroriste structure en effet ses filières de recrutement de ressortissants étrangers et alimente de façon constante sa propagande au moyen de la mise en scène d'actes barbares sur les réseaux sociaux. Il organise en outre depuis ce pays la menace djihadiste dirigée contre la France et contribue à aggraver la crise syrienne et à amplifier les phénomènes migratoires dans la région. Pleinement déterminé à lutter contre Daech le président de la République a annoncé le 7 septembre 2015 sa décision de faire procéder à partir du dispositif militaire déployé par la France dans le cadre de l'opération Chammal à des vols de reconnaissance au-dessus de la Syrie. ... Au regard des premiers enseignements tirés de cette phase de reconnaissance l'aviation française a entamé ses frappes contre les positions de Daech en Syrie dès le 27 septembre dernier."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.senat.fr/basile/visio.do?id=qSEQ150616926&idtable=q268493|q259554|q273354|q265716|q241009|q286635|q288881|q267144|q308399|q302065&_c=syrie&rch=qs&de=20110101&au=20161030&rqg=dqrnsctpa&dp=1+an&radio=deau&aff=ar&tri=p&off=30&afd=ppr&afd=ppl&afd=pjl&afd=cvnhttps://perma.cc/NM4S-NXCY
France2015-10-02"Reply by the Secretariat of State to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development in charge of European affairs
Published in the OJ Senate of 02/10/2015 - page 9062
Current Issue to Government No. 0573G by Mr Jean-Pierre Raffarin (Vienne - Les Républicains)
Published in the OJ Senate of 02/10/2015 - page 9061"Public statement"Q: ""On the Syrian tragedy the reminder of the foundations of Geneva naturally shared by all was probably not sufficient in the light of the other proposals put forward on the occasion of this conference. I doubt whether President Obama or President Putin spoke of this French desire not to hierarchize our opponents to immobilize us in an impotent ""neither-nor"": neither Daesh nor Bashar."
A: ""At the UN forum the President of the Republic François Hollande defended the constant position of France since the beginning of this conflict that is to say a political transition and the affirmation of our determination to fight Daech.
As you know the President of the Republic decided that we could henceforth conduct overflights to identify the centers of jihadists who threaten peace in Europe and who threaten the French territory with terrorist attacks.
That's why our planes began bombing along with the other coalition planes Daech's targets in Syria the same way we are participating in the coalition in Iraq."" --Informal PILAC Translation""Q: ""Sur la tragédie syrienne le rappel des fondements de Genève naturellement partagés par tous n'était probablement pas suffisant au regard des autres propositions mises sur la table à l'occasion de cette conférence. Je doute que le président Obama ou le président Poutine aient parlé de cette volonté française de ne pas hiérarchiser nos adversaires pour nous immobiliser dans un « ni-ni » impuissant : ni Daesh ni Bachar.
R: À la tribune des Nations unies le Président de la République François Hollande a défendu la position constante de la France depuis le début de ce conflit c'est-à-dire la recherche d'une transition politique et l'affirmation de notre détermination à combattre Daech.
Vous le savez le Président de la République a décidé que nous pouvions désormais opérer des survols pour repérer les centres de djihadistes qui menacent la paix en Europe et qui menacent le territoire français d'attentats terroristes.
C'est pourquoi nos avions ont commencé à bombarder avec les autres avions de la coalition les cibles de Daech en Syrie comme nous participons à la coalition en Irak."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://www.senat.fr/basile/visio.do?id=qSEQ15100573G&idtable=q282697|q303683|q308196|q311679|q305876|q288113|q301176|q308686|q297079|q301452&_c=syrie&rch=qs&de=20110101&au=20161030&rqg=dqrnsctpa&dp=1+an&radio=deau&aff=ar&tri=p&off=50&afd=ppr&afd=ppl&afd=pjl&afd=cvnhttps://perma.cc/4YLD-EF6Z
France2012-12-07"Response of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Published in the OJ Senate of 07/12/2012 - page 5762
Current Issue to Government No. 0066G by Mr Jean-Pierre Plancade (Haute-Garonne - RDSE)
Published in the OJ Senate of 07/12/2012 - page 5761"Public statement"Q: ""A few days ago and even a few hours ago there has been a number of reports that the situation is worsening in Syria and that a new level is being reached with the use of chemical weapons by Bashar al-Assad against the rebellion and the Syrian people.
...
Under these conditions can we still avoid a NATO military intervention in Syria?
A: The information that you are referring to as to the possible militarization of sarin continues to be checked. Our message remains firm and unchanged: any use of these chemical weapons by the Syrian authorities would be unacceptable and the international community would not remain inactive in such a situation.
In this context you are asking the question of a NATO intervention. As you know this organization can only intervene under Article 5 of the Treaty of Washington at the request of an ally who is the victim of an attack on its territory or on the basis of a warrant which can only come from the UN Security Council. It is within the framework of this international legality that we must act.
As Laurent Fabius reminded us I wish to emphasize here that the deployment of Patriot missiles on the border between Turkey and Syria obeys only a strict defensive logic and in no way foreshadows a hypothetical intervention by NATO."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Depuis quelques jours et même depuis quelques heures plusieurs informations indiquent que la situation s'aggrave encore en Syrie et qu'un nouveau palier est en train d'être franchi avec l'utilisation d'armes chimiques par les hommes de Bachar el-Assad à l'encontre de la rébellion et du peuple syrien.
...
Dans ces conditions peut-on encore éviter une intervention militaire de l'OTAN en Syrie?
R: Les informations auxquelles vous faites allusion quant à la possible militarisation de sarin continuent de faire l'objet de vérifications. Notre message reste ferme et inchangé : tout emploi de ces armes chimiques par les autorités syriennes serait inacceptable et la communauté internationale ne resterait pas inactive dans un tel cas de figure.
Dans ce contexte vous posez la question d'une intervention de l'OTAN. Comme vous le savez cette organisation ne pourrait intervenir qu'au titre de l'article 5 du traité de Washington à la demande d'un allié qui serait victime d'une attaque contre son territoire ou sur la base d'un mandat qui ne peut venir que du Conseil de sécurité de l'ONU. C'est dans le cadre de cette légalité internationale que nous devons agir.
Comme a eu l'occasion de le rappeler Laurent Fabius je veux souligner ici que le déploiement de missiles Patriot à la frontière entre la Turquie et la Syrie n'obéit qu'à une stricte logique défensive et ne préfigure en rien une hypothétique intervention de l'Alliance atlantique."""Other: NATO under Article 5 of Treaty of WashingtonAssad regimeNATO interventionhttp://www.senat.fr/basile/visio.do?id=qSEQ12120066G&idtable=q268972|q286522|q264648|q273846|q306383|q315434|q308691|q308687|q276749|q272471&_c=syrie&rch=qs&de=20110101&au=20161030&rqg=dqrnsctpa&dp=1+an&radio=deau&aff=ar&tri=p&off=10&afd=ppr&afd=ppl&afd=pjl&afd=cvnhttps://perma.cc/TF3L-BSG4
France2013-10-24"Reply of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Published in the OJ Sénat of 24/10/2013 - page 3085
Written Question No. 07071 by Mr Christophe Béchu (Maine-et-Loire - UMP)
Published in the OJ Senate of 27/06/2013 - page 1900"Public statement"Q: ""Mr. Christophe Béchu draws the attention of the Minister of Foreign Affairs to the evolution of the conflict in Syria following the recent discovery of evidence of the use of chemical weapons by the army Of Bashar Al-Assad. The use of chemical weapons was the 'red line' for France and other countries. The principles set by the international community have been rejected.
He reminds him of his statement of 29 May 2013 on France Inter in which he said he wanted to give a 'severe reply' to the use of such weapons. The war has been going on for two years and according to the UN has caused 93000 deaths. He asks him what the reply endoresed by France could be.
A: While the situation seemed blocked at the UN Security Council France with the United States threatened to strike the Syrian regime. This pressure has taken hold and negotiations have begun while the regime continued to deny until recently the very existence of chemical weapons."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""M. Christophe Béchu attire l'attention de M. le ministre des affaires étrangères concernant l'évolution du conflit en Syrie à la suite de la récente découverte de preuves témoignant de l'utilisation d'armes chimiques par l'armée de Bachar Al-Assad. L'utilisation d'armes chimiques était la « ligne rouge » pour la France et d'autres pays. Les principes fixés par la communauté internationale ont été reniés.
Il lui rappelle sa déclaration du 29 mai 2013 sur l'antenne de France Inter dans laquelle il indiquait vouloir donner une « réplique sévère » en cas d'utilisation de telles armes. La guerre dure depuis deux ans et a fait autour de 93 000 morts selon l'ONU. Il lui demande donc quelle peut être la réplique défendue par la France.
R: Alors que la situation semblait bloquée au conseil de sécurité des Nations unies la France avec les États-Unis a menacé d'une frappe le régime syrien. Cette pression a porté et des négociations ont pu s'ouvrir alors que le régime continuait à nier jusqu'à récemment l'existence même d'armes chimiques."""Other: Responsibility to ProtectAssad regime"Other: ""threatened to strike the Syrian regime"""http://www.senat.fr/basile/visio.do?id=qSEQ130607071&idtable=q268972|q286522|q264648|q273846|q306383|q315434|q308691|q308687|q276749|q272471&_c=syrie&rch=qs&de=20110101&au=20161030&rqg=dqrnsctpa&dp=1+an&radio=deau&aff=ar&tri=p&off=10&afd=ppr&afd=ppl&afd=pjl&afd=cvnhttps://perma.cc/DA46-KUK5
France2015-11-27"Response of the Prime Minister
Published in the OJ Senate of 27/11/2015 - page 11702
Current Issue to Government No. 0665G by Mr Jean-Marc Gabouty (Haute-Vienne - UDI-UC)
Published in the OJ Senate of 27/11/2015 - page 11702"Public statement"A: ""The objective of the President of the Republic is as before to destroy Daesh. France has never hit the Syrian regime over the past two years particularly in recent months. We have only striken Daech for a year as part of a coalition committed in Iraq and in recent weeks in Syria where we have intensified these strikes in last days.
...
The sine qua non for the success of this war is to emerge from the ambiguities to form a coalition into a coordination with this sole objective: to destroy Daech!"" --Official Translation""R: ""L'objectif du Président de la République est comme auparavant de détruire Daech. La France n'a jamais frappé le régime syrien au cours de ces deux dernières années particulièrement au cours de ces derniers mois. Nous n'avons fait que frapper Daech depuis un an dans le cadre d'une coalition engagée en Irak et depuis quelques semaines en Syrie où nous avons intensifié ces frappes ces derniers jours.
...
La condition sine qua non pour réussir cette guerre est de sortir des ambiguïtés d'entrer dans une coalition dans une coordination avec ce seul objectif : détruire Daech!"""Collective self-defenseISILAirstrikeshttp://federation87.parti-udi.fr/intervention-en-syrie.html https://perma.cc/4HNH-M8BF
France2016-09-22"Situation in Syria - Statement by Mr Jean-Marc Ayrault Minister of Foreign Affairs and International developpement - Security Council"Public statement"""Finally what is at stake in Syria is also a major battle against terrorism. That fight has not ended nor must it. It must continue both against Da’esh and all other groups in Syria that espouse the same ideology and violence including again Da’esh as well as Al-Qaida and the Al-Nusra Front. France again reiterates that that must include all non-jihadist armed groups which should distance themselves from those terrorist organizations — and fast.
France is playing its part in this common fight of the international community against terrorism alongside the coalition. We are acting militarily against Da’esh and are prepared to do the same against any terrorist group which we must prevent from taking advantage of the truce to strengthen themselves and prosper. But nothing will be more useful in the fight against Da’esh than our collective mobilization to ensure that at long last Syria once again finds its way towards peace and stability. If we yield to impotence fatalism and resigning ourselves I think we will bear a heavy responsibility."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation""""Enfin ce qui se joue en Syrie c’est aussi une bataille capitale dans la lutte contre le terrorisme. Cette lutte n’a pas cessé elle ne doit pas cesser elle doit se poursuivre. Elle doit se poursuivre contre Daech elle doit aussi se poursuivre contre tous les groupes qui promeuvent la même idéologie la même violence Daech Al Qaïda et donc Al Nosra en Syrie. Et la France a d’ailleurs répété et appelle à nouveau tous les groupes armés non djihadistes à se détourner de cette organisation terroriste de s’en éloigner très concrètement sur le terrain et très vite.
Cette bataille commune de la communauté internationale contre le terrorisme la France y prend sa part au sein de la coalition. Elle agit militairement contre Daech elle est prête à s’engager contre tous les groupes terroristes que nous devons empêcher de tirer profit de la trêve pour se renforcer et prospérer. Mais rien ne sera plus utile à la lutte contre Daech que notre mobilisation collective pour que la Syrie retrouve enfin la voie de la paix et de la stabilité. Si nous cédons à l’impuissance à la fatalité à la résignation nous porterons une lourde responsabilité."""Collective self-defense"ISIL al Qaeda al Nusra Front any terrorist organization"Unclear"English: http://www.franceonu.org/Syria-France-proposes-new-monitoring-mechanism
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Syrie-la-France-propose-un-nouveau-mecanisme-de-surveillance"https://perma.cc/G373-9N47
France2015-09-28"70th session of the UN General Assembly - General debate - Address by Mr François Hollande President of the French Republic"Public statement"""The Syrian tragedy already counted 30000 victims; today there are 250000; 12000 children are dead victims of the regime of Bashar al-Assad because the dramatic events in Syria began with a revolution that set out to undermine a dictatorship the dictatorship of Bashar al-Assad. At that time there were no terrorists there were no fundamentalist groups there was a dictatorship that massacred its own people. And the refugees those we talk about today those who are in the camps the displaced persons number eight million. That mass of women and men of children is not fleeing the war alone it has been fleeing the regime of Bashar al-Assad for over three years and still today that same regime is raining bombs on innocent civilian populations.
But it is not because there is a terrorist group that itself massacres kills rapes and even destroys Humanity’s essential heritage that there should be a form of pardon of amnesty for the regime that created the situation as if the fact that there exists a terrorist group perpetrating the worst possible acts of evil could provide a way to being part of what is good. No. They are all those women those men those children victims of the tragedy produced by an alliance of terrorism and dictatorship. No solution can be found other than through a political process.
France due to its history and also to its ties with this region of the world intends to shoulder its responsibilities. It has done so once again recently including the taking of military action the projection of force. France wishes to work with all and excludes no country the neighbouring countries that are most concerned the countries of the Gulf as well as Iran the countries of the permanent members of the Security Council in addition to the Europeans. Our desire is to work with all those who are willing."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation"Collective self-defense; Other: Responsibility to Protect"Assad regime ""terrorists""""""military action"""http://www.franceonu.org/Address-by-President-Hollande-to-the-United-Nationshttps://perma.cc/RY2A-2EGU
France2015-09-29"Counter-terrorism summit - Speech by Mr. Laurent Fabius Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development - 29 September 2015"Public statement"""Finally Syria is clearly the most difficult part today. As you’re no doubt aware France has recently decided to carry out reconnaissance flights over Syrian territory increase our intelligence capability and carry out strikes if necessary.
We carried out a strike a few days ago and we’ll continue to do so in the self-defence framework of United Nations Charter Article 51. These military actions must be conducted; and I’ll say that from this viewpoint a clear-sighted assessment of what each of us has been doing for several months now is undoubtedly leading to improvements."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation"Self-defense (unclear if collective or individual)UnclearAirstrikeshttp://www.franceonu.org/Terrorism-we-must-engage-practically-in-the-fight-against-Daeshhttps://perma.cc/G4WX-H25X
France2016-10-17"Remarks to the press by Mr. François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations"Public statement"""Actually France and its partners are determined to keep up the pressure and increase it on the regime and its allies. This is exactly what we want in order to transform this political pressure into action to stop the bloodshed in Aleppo.
While the decisive battle against ISIS to retake Mosul is underway putting an end to the siege of Aleppo is more urgent than ever. Why? Because the barrage of fire targeting civilians in Aleppo is both a humanitarian tragedy and a gift for the terrorists. Let’s call a spade a spade Aleppo is an incubator for terrorism a breeding ground for terrorism. We cannot buy on this the narrative of our Russian colleagues: that is simply not true. What the regime and Moscow are fighting in Aleppo is not terrorism they are fueling terrorism and then we in France and elsewhere pay the price.
So to lift the siege of Aleppo is a humanitarian priority but also a national security priority for France. Our core values as well as our interest are at stake here. So make no mistake about it we will not give up. So to lift the siege of Aleppo is a humanitarian priority but also a national security priority for France. Our core values as well as our interest are at stake here. So make no mistake about it we will not give up."""Individual self-defense; Other: Responsibility to Protect"Assad regime ""terrorists"""Unclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/Aleppo-is-an-incubator-for-terrorismhttps://perma.cc/V9AA-KTAD
France2016-10-10"Yemen / Syria - Remarks to the press by Mr. François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nation"Public statement"Q: ""Will the Council hold a meeting or should there be some action?
A: We will see.
What I had in mind is also Aleppo.
...
And now what? Based on this isolation the Saturday sequence allows us to exert maximum political pressure on Damascus and Moscow. Now the goal is to transform this pressure over Damascus and Moscow into leverage and into action to again stop the bloodshed in Aleppo. This is the goal.
...
Q: How are you going to do that? How can you go in . . . I mean this will have to be outside the Security Council?
A: There are many ways to transform this political capital that we have that grows only stronger after Saturday into action and into every possible effort to stop the bloodshed.
...
Q: How do you get that though? The Council will be blocked? How do you do that?
A: We have to be creative."""UnclearAssad regimeUnclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/The-goal-is-to-transform-the-pressure-over-Damascus-and-Moscow-into-actionhttps://perma.cc/V9AA-KTAD
France2015-11-20"Security Council - Resolution 2249 against terrorism - Remarks to the press by Mr François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations"Public statement"""One week to the day after the attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis the Security Council has adopted unanimously Resolution 2249 proposed by France on the fight against Daesh.
Today with this fundamental resolution adopted at a record speed the Security Council has taken a crucial step forward a crucial step towards bringing the international community together in the fight against Daesh in Syria and in Iraq.
This strong and operational resolution emphasizes the exceptional nature of the threat posed by Daesh and calls on all member states to take all necessary measures to combat it.
It provides the legal and political framework for international coordinated action to eradicate Daesh in its safe havens in Syria and Iraq.
On the basis of this resolution France will continue and amplify its efforts to mobilize the entire international community.
...
Again you remember what President Hollande said to the French parliament : the absolute necessity to unify and mobilize the international community in the fight against Daech. That is what this resolution is all about. And to give you a few examples this resolution calls on all Member States to take all necessary measures against Daech. “All necessary measures” these are the key-words obviously. It’s a strong very strong formulation which suffers no ambiguity. The determination of the threat in the preambular paragraphs is also very clear : we are facing indeed an unprecedented threat.
So with this resolution we have as I said the legal and political framework to mobilize and unify the entire international community in the recognition of that threat and fight against Daesh."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation""[Partly available in French] ""Une semaine jour pour jour après les attentats de Paris et de Saint-Denis le Conseil de Sécurité a adopté à l’unanimité la résolution 2249 proposée par la France sur la lutte contre Daech.
Aujourd’hui avec cette résolution fondamentale adoptée en un temps record le Conseil de Sécurité franchit une étape cruciale pour rassembler rassembler la communauté internationale dans la lutte contre Daech en Syrie et en Irak.
Cette résolution forte opérationnelle reconnaît le caractère exceptionnel de la menace de Daech et appelle les Etats membres à prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires pour la combattre.
Elle fournit un cadre légal et politique pour une action internationale étroitement coordonnée en vue d’éradiquer Daech dans ses sanctuaires en Syrie et en Irak.
Sur la base de cette résolution la France poursuivra et amplifiera ses efforts pour mobiliser l’ensemble de la communauté internationale."""UNSC ResolutionISIL"""All necessary measures""""English: http://www.franceonu.org/Fight-against-Daesh-the-Security-Council-has-taken-a-crucial-step-forward
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Lutte-contre-Daech-une-etape-cruciale-a-ete-franchie"
France2015-11-20"Security Council - Resolution 2249 against terrorism - Remarks to the press by Mr François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations"Public statement"Q: ""Mr. Ambassador you have just said that this resolution gave the legal means to perhaps not force the States but in any case to ensure that the States meet. What does this mean since that is not even under Chapter 7 so it's not binding?
A: It is a good question: two things are key in terms of legality since I said in French that this resolution provides the legal and political framework for a closely coordinated international action and mobilization against Daesh. The first is that this resolution mentions in English 'all necessary measures' in French 'all the necessary measures' which are the key words as everyone knows within the framework of the United Nations. The strongest words to take action in this case against Daesh there is no stronger less ambiguous formulation than 'all necessary measures.' This is the essential point. The threat is clearly identified and clearly identified as Daesh as these areas in Iraq and Syria combining these two factors integrating them into a resolution with full legal force and political resolutions the references in this resolution to international law and these various aspects all this I confirm gives an unprecedented legal and political force to the international mobilization against Daesh.
...
Q: Mr. Ambassador essentially France your President has declared war against ISIS You have the backing of the UN Security Council resolution that talks about all necessary measures will France be sending ground troops into Syria and Iraq?
A: As I said in my statement at the Security Council France has constantly increased its military efforts in Syria against Daech. In the coming days we will have the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle on site which will more than triple our striking capabilities. So no doubt about it this resolution will help us continue this way and will also help us better coordinate our action with our international partners and the members of the Security Council in particular.
Q: Did you add the phrase in the UN charter after paragraph 5 I am asking because the version that was emailed was not having it in there but we heard that it was in there? And do you believe that the UN Charter contains within in it a right of individual self-defense by countries; is that your understanding of the UN Charter?
A: Good question because the reference to the UN charter is clearly within the resolution and I think it adds to the resolution and clearly demonstrates the fact that our action including our military action is part of the UN charter and must be part of the UN Charter. So yes this is a very important message.""-- PILAC Informal Translation""Q: ""Mr L’Ambassadeur vous venez de dire que cette résolution donnait les moyens légaux pour peut-être pas forcer les Etats mais en tout cas faire en sorte que les Etats se réunissent. Qu’est-ce que cela veut dire puisque cela n’est même pas sous chapitre 7 donc ce n’est pas contraignant?
A: C’est une bonne question. Deux éléments sont clés en termes de légalité puisque je disais je reprends mon propos en français que cette résolution fournit le cadre légal et politique pour une action et une mobilisation internationale étroitement coordonnée contre Daech. Quelques éléments parmi d’autres : le premier c’est que cette résolution mentionne en anglais “all necessary measures” en français “toutes les mesures nécessaires” ce qui sont les mots clés comme chacun sait dans l’enceinte des Nations unies les mots les plus forts pour porter une action en l’occurrence contre Daech. Il n y a pas de formulation plus forte moins ambigue que celle de « toutes les mesures nécessaires ». C’est le point essentiel. L’autre chose c’est que la menace est clairement identifiée. Elle est clairement identifiée à travers Daech à travers ces zones en Irak et en Syrie. La combinaison de ces deux facteurs leur insertion dans le cadre d’une résolution avec toute la force légale et politique que donne une résolution les références dans le cadre de cette résolution au droit international et à ces différents volets tout cela je le confirme donne une force légale et politique sans précédent à la mobilisation internationale contre Daech."""UNSC Resolution; Individual self-defenseISIL"""All necessary measures""; Airstrikes"http://www.franceonu.org/Fight-against-Daesh-the-Security-Council-has-taken-a-crucial-step-forwardhttps://perma.cc/EJ7F-WP77
France2015-03-27"Remarks to the press by Mr Laurent Fabius Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development following the UNSC debate on the situation of Christians and other persecuted minorities in the Middle East"Public statement"""We need to face the facts: today there is a real danger that minorities in the Middle East will disappear entirely. The international community can no longer look on lamenting the situation as a sort of powerless power. We must act to prevent the definitive exile of these populations. That is what our citizens expect and we think they are right.
Our debate highlighted strong convergences on several points that I would like to sum up. First our goal. We want to turn the tide. Our focus must now be the return of minorities to the lands from which they have been driven. This is not a favour it is their right for these lands are theirs. How can we achieve this? On behalf of France I have proposed that our collective action should focus on four components.
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Two military action. The international coalition and local forces are currently and it is very important and necessary focusing on combating Daesh. This is crucial but it is also necessary to incorporate the return of minorities into the military strategy. This means liberating the areas from which these people have been driven and ensuring their security as they return for without security they cannot do so. Therefore I mean security areas."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation""""Le danger dont il s’agit est le risque de disparition totale des minorités au Moyen-Orient. La communauté internationale dit beaucoup de chose elle déplore elle agit mais je l’ai qualifié dans ce domaine de « puissance impuissante ». Nous demandons donc qu’il y ait une action efficace et rapide en direction de ces populations.
Dans le débat qui n’est pas terminé il y a eu beaucoup de convergences cela m’a frappé. D’abord sur l’objectif. La priorité ne doit pas être seulement de venir en aide aux minorités ou de les accueillir dans nos pays amis mais de permettre qu’elles restent sur place ou qu’elles retournent dans leurs pays. Ce n’est pas un passe-droit parce que ces terres sont les leurs. Comment y parvenir ? J’ai proposé une charte d’action autour de quatre volets.
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Deuxièmement l’action militaire. Si on veut que les minorités puissent rester en sécurité il faut qu’on crée des zones de sécurité. Et donc l’action militaire je pense en particulier à l’action de la Coalition internationale doit non seulement viser à faire reculer Daech mais à mettre en place ces zones de sécurité."""Other: Responsibility to ProtectISIL"""Military action"""http://www.franceonu.org/Laurent-Fabius-proposes-a-Actionhttps://perma.cc/4RGM-5FXD; https://perma.cc/7T33-ED97
France2016-07-15Statement by President HollandePublic statement"""As I speak 77 people have sadly been killed including several children and some 20 people are in a critical condition. It cannot be denied that this was a terrorist attack and once again it was an extremely violent one and it’s clear that we must do everything to ensure we can fight the scourge of terrorism.
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France was hit on its National Day 14 July the symbol of freedom because human rights are denied by the fanatics and because France is obviously their target.
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Nothing will make us yield in our determination to combat terrorism and we’re going to further intensify our strikes in Syria and Iraq. We’ll continue to hit those who attack us on our own soil in their hideouts. I announced this yesterday morning."""Individual self-defense"""Terrorists"""Airstrikeshttp://www.franceonu.org/Hollande-France-will-always-be-stronger-than-fanaticshttps://perma.cc/6CX3-RW6T
France2015-11-14"Statement by M. François Hollande President of the Republic following the Defence Council meeting"Public statement"""What happened yesterday in Paris and in Saint-Denis near the Stade de France is an act of war and in the face of war the country must take the appropriate decisions. It’s an act of war which was committed by a terrorist army Daesh [ISIL] a jihadist army against France ... It’s an act of war which was prepared organized planned externally and with internal complicity which the investigation will enable us to establish.
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Because it’s been cravenly shamefully violently attacked France will show no mercy to the Daesh barbarians. It will act within the framework of the law with every means appropriate and in every theatre both domestic and external in consultation with our allies who are themselves targeted by this terrorist threat.
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My dear compatriots what we are defending is our homeland but it’s much more than that. It’s the values of humanity and France will be able to shoulder its responsibilities and I call on you to show this essential unity."""Individual self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/Paris-Attacks-Communiques-issued-by-Presidency-of-the-Republichttps://perma.cc/ES6D-6G2X
France2015-11-16François Hollande’s Speech Before a Joint Session of ParliamentPublic statement"""France is at war. The acts committed in Paris and near the Stade de France on Friday evening are acts of war. They left at least 129 dead and many injured. They are an act of aggression against our country against its values against its young people and against its way of life.
They were carried out by a jihadist army by Daesh which is fighting us because France is a country of freedom because we are the birthplace of human rights.
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I shall marshal the full strength of the State to defend the safety of its people.
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We are in a war against jihadist terrorism that threatens the entire world not just France.
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Friday’s acts of war were decided upon planned and prepared in Syria.
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We are facing an organization Daesh which has a territorial base financial resources and military capabilities. Since the beginning of the year Daesh’s terrorist army has struck in Paris Denmark Tunisia Egypt Lebanon Kuwait Saudi Arabia Turkey and Libya. Every day it massacres and oppresses populations.
That is why the need to destroy Daesh concerns the whole international community. I have therefore asked the Council of Security to meet as soon as possible to adopt a resolution expressing our common will to combat terrorism.
Meanwhile France will step up its operations in Syria.
Yesterday I ordered 10 French fighter jets to launch airstrikes on the Daesh stronghold of Raqqa. They destroyed a command center and a training camp. ... And I want to announce here before Congress that we will continue these strikes in the weeks to come. On Thursday the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier will set sail for the eastern Mediterranean which will triple our capacity to act.
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We are fighting terrorism wherever the very survival of States is under threat. That was the reason for my decision to intervene in Mali and it still justifies the presence of our troops in the Sahel where Boko Haram carries out massacres kidnappings rapes and murders. We are fighting terrorism in Iraq to allow the authorities of that country to restore their sovereignty throughout the entire country and in Syria where we are resolutely and tirelessly seeking a political solution one that does not include Bashar al-Assad. But our enemy in Syria is Daesh.
There is no question of containing it. This organization must be destroyed both to save the populations of Syria and Iraq and those of Lebanon Jordan Turkey – all the neighboring countries. And to protect ourselves to keep foreign fighters from coming to our country as was the case on Friday to commit terrorist acts.
But we must do more. Syria has become the largest breeding ground for terrorists that the world has ever known and the international community - as I have noted more than once - is divided and incohesive. From the outset of the conflict France has called for this unity which is so necessary in order to act.
Today we need more airstrikes which we will carry out and more support for those who are fighting Daesh which we France will provide. But we need all those who can really combat this terrorist army to unite as part of a large single coalition. That is what we are striving for.
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I have asked the defense minister to take up this matter tomorrow with our European colleagues under article 42 (7) of the Treaty on European Union the solidarity clause which states that when one State is attacked all the Member States shall have the obligation to provide aid and assistance because the enemy is not just France’s enemy it is Europe’s enemy.
Europe cannot live in the belief that the crises around it have no effect on it. The refugee issue is directly linked to the wars in Syria and Iraq. The inhabitants of those countries particularly those living in territories controlled by Daesh are suffering hideously and they are fleeing. They are the victims of this same terrorist system.
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It is therefore urgent for us to defend ourselves on a long-term basis. What’s at stake is the protection of our fellow citizens and our ability to live together."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Original Translation""""La France est en guerre. Les actes commis vendredi soir à Paris et près du Stade de France sont des actes de guerre. Ils ont fait au moins 129 morts et de nombreux blessés. Ils constituent une agression contre notre pays contre ses valeurs contre sa jeunesse contre son mode de vie.
Ils sont le fait d’une armée djihadiste le groupe Daech qui nous combat parce que la France est un pays de liberté parce que nous sommes la patrie des Droits de l’Homme.
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Ma volonté est de mettre toute la puissance de l’Etat au service de la protection de nos concitoyens.
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Nous sommes dans une guerre contre le terrorisme djihadiste qui menace le monde entier et pas seulement la France.
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Les actes de guerre de vendredi ont été décidés planifiés en Syrie préparés Nous faisons face à une organisation Daech disposant d’une assise territoriale de ressources financières et de capacités militaires. Depuis le début de l’année l’armée terroriste de Daech a notamment frappé à Paris au Danemark en Tunisie en Egypte au Liban au Koweït en Arabie saoudite en Turquie en Libye. Elle massacre chaque jour et opprime des populations.
C’est la raison pour laquelle la nécessité de détruire Daech constitue un sujet qui concerne toute la communauté internationale. J’ai donc demandé au Conseil de sécurité de se réunir dans les meilleurs délais pour adopter une résolution marquant cette volonté commune de lutter contre le terrorisme.
D’ici là la France intensifiera ses opérations en Syrie.
Hier soir j’ai donné l’ordre à dix chasseurs-bombardiers français de larguer leurs bombes sur le fief de Daech à Raqqa. Ils ont détruit un centre de commandement et un camp d’entraînement. ... Et je l’annonce ici devant le Congrès : nous poursuivrons ces frappes au cours des semaines à venir. Le porte-avion Charles de Gaulle appareillera jeudi pour se rendre en Méditerranée orientale ce qui triplera nos capacités d’action.
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Le terrorisme nous le combattons partout là où des Etats sont menacés pour leur survie même. C’est ce qui a justifié la décision que j’avais prise d’intervenir au Mali et encore en ce moment même la présence de nos militaires au Sahel là où Boko Haram massacre enlève viole tue. Le terrorisme nous le combattons en Irak pour permettre aux autorités de ce pays de restaurer leur souveraineté sur l’ensemble du territoire et en Syrie nous cherchons résolument inlassablement une solution politique dans laquelle Bachar AL ASSAD ne peut constituer l’issue mais notre ennemi notre ennemi en Syrie c’est Daech. Il ne s’agit donc pas de contenir mais de détruire cette organisation à la fois pour sauver des populations celles de Syrie celles d’Irak mais je pourrais ajouter celles du Liban de Jordanie de Turquie tous les pays voisins. C’est aussi de nous protéger pour éviter que viennent sur notre territoire comme ce fut le cas vendredi des combattants étrangers pour mener des actes terroristes. Mais il faut faire davantage. La Syrie est devenue la plus grande fabrique de terroristes que le monde ait connu et la communauté internationale – et j’en ai fait plusieurs fois le constat – est divisée et incohérente. La France a demandé dès le début du conflit qu’il puisse y avoir cette unité si nécessaire pour agir. Aujourd’hui il faut plus de frappes – nous en faisons – plus de soutien à tous ceux qui se battent contre Daech– nous l’apportons nous la France – mais il faut un rassemblement de tous ceux qui peuvent réellement lutter contre cette armée terroriste dans le cadre d’une grande et unique coalition – c’est ce à quoi nous travaillons.
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J’ai demandé au ministre de la Défense de saisir dès demain ses homologues européens au titre de l’article 42-7 du traité de l’Union qui prévoit que lorsqu’un Etat est agressé tous les Etats membres doivent lui apporter solidarité face à cette agression car l’ennemi n’est pas un ennemi de la France c’est un ennemi de l’Europe. L’Europe elle ne peut pas vivre dans l’idée que les crises qui l’entourent n’ont pas d’effet sur elle. La question des réfugiés est directement liée à la guerre en Syrie et en Irak. Les habitants de ces pays-là notamment ceux des territoires contrôlés par Daech sont martyrisés et fuient ; ils sont les victimes de ce même système terroriste.
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Nous devons donc nous défendre dans l’urgence et dans la durée. Il en va de la protection de nos concitoyens et de notre capacité de vivre ensemble."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Article 42 (7) of the Treaty on European UnionISILAirstrikes"English: http://www.franceonu.org/Francois-Hollande-s-Speech-Before-a-Joint-Session-of-Parliament
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Discours-du-president-de-la-Republique-devant-le-Congres"https://perma.cc/MH2N-ZEZC
France2015-11-20"Security Council - Adoption of Resolution 2249 - Explanation of vote by Mr. François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations - 20 November 2015"Public statement"""On 13 November Daesh committed an act of war against France. In launching its deadly attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis Daesh sought to strike more than a capital — it sought to strike at what defines our nation.
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But that day Daesh did not attack only France and the French. It sought to strike far more. It assailed the entire world in the cosmopolitan city of Paris. ... President Hollande spoke Monday before the French Parliament meeting in a joint session to mark the absolute determination of France to fight Daesh with all means necessary.
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As a founding Member of the United Nations France is deeply committed to the raison d’être of our Organization. The United Nations represents the primacy of law and collective security. It is therefore to the Security Council that the President of the Republic has naturally turned to organize and mobilize our international action.
In adopting resolution 2249 (2015) the members of the Security Council have acted unanimously to live up to their responsibilities. The resolution we have just adopted recognizes the exceptional nature of the threat posed by Daesh. It calls on all Member States to take all necessary measures to eradicate the sanctuary that Daesh has created in Syria and Iraq and to thwart its radical ideology. The resolution frames our action within the framework of international law and in respect for the Charter of the United Nations which is our common good — indeed I would say our common treasure. It also offers the guarantee of an effective fight against transnational terrorism.
As I said the events of 13 November were an armed aggression against France. Our military action of which we informed the Security Council from the outset and which was justified as legitimate collective self-defence can now also be characterized as individual self-defence in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations. On the basis of this historical resolution of the Security Council France will pursue and strengthen its efforts to mobilize the entire international community to defeat our common enemy. ... Militarily the President of the Republic announced an intensification of air strikes against strategic Daesh targets in Syria. This intensification is under way. In the coming days France will increase its strike capability threefold with the arrival of the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. Politically the fight against Daesh will be effective only if it is based on a political transition that will end the Syrian conflict which has served and continues to serve as a nursery of terrorism.
The resolution creates the conditions for an international mobilization. In that context we appeal to Europe. My country has sought and obtained this week from the European Union the first activation in its history of the mutual solidarity clause because France has paid a heavy price in its struggle against the terrorism of Daesh in Syria and Iraq and that of Al-Qaeda in the Sahel. We expect Europe to actively engage with us on behalf of our shared security and that of the neighboring countries of Syria.
We also call on all members of the Security Council and beyond. It is in that spirit that the President of the Republic will travel next week to Washington D.C. and Moscow. We have contacted our many partners and will continue to do so. Indeed we are determined to achieve the broadest possible mobilization. Against Daesh we have our common humanity. We the peoples of the United Nations have a duty to defend it."" --UN Official Translation""""Le 13 novembre dernier Daech commettait un acte de guerre contre la France. En conduisant ses attaques meurtrières à Paris et Saint-Denis Daech a voulu frapper plus qu’une capitale il a voulu frapper ce qui définit notre Nation.
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Mais Daech ce jour-là n’a pas seulement frappé la France et les Français. Il a cherché à atteindre bien au-delà. Il a touché le monde dans cette ville cosmopolite qu’est Paris. ... Le Président Hollande s’est exprimé lundi devant le Parlement français réuni en Congrès pour marquer la détermination absolue de la France à lutter avec tous les moyens nécessaires contre Daech.
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Membre fondateur des Nations Unies la France croit profondément à la raison d’être de notre organisation. Les Nations Unies c’est le primat du droit et de la sécurité collective. C’est donc vers le Conseil de sécurité que le Président de la République s’est naturellement tourné pour organiser et mobiliser notre action internationale.
En adoptant cette résolution le Conseil de sécurité s’est mobilisé à l’unanimité de ses membres et à la hauteur de ses responsabilités. La résolution que nous venons d’adopter reconnaît le caractère exceptionnel de la menace de Daech. Il appelle tous les Etats membres à prendre toutes les mesures nécessaires pour éradiquer le sanctuaire que Daech a créé en Syrie et en Irak mais aussi repousser son idéologie radicale; Cette résolution encadre notre action dans le cadre du droit international et dans le respect de la Charte des Nations Unies qui est notre bien commun qui est notre trésor commun. Il offre aussi une garantie de lutte efficace contre le terrorisme transnational. ... Les attentats du 13 novembre ont constitué une agression armée contre la France. Nos actions militaires dont nous avons informé le Conseil de sécurité dès l’origine qui étaient justifiées par la légitime défense collective peuvent désormais se fonder également sur la légitime défense individuelle conformément à l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations Unies. Sur le fondement de cette résolution historique du Conseil de sécurité la France poursuivra et amplifiera ses efforts pour mobiliser toute la communauté internationale afin vaincre notre ennemi commun. ... Sur le plan militaire le Président de la République a annoncé une intensification de ses frappes aériennes contre des cibles stratégiques de Daech en Syrie. Cette intensification est en cours : La France triplera dans les prochains jours sa capacité de frappe avec l’arrivée du porte-avions Charles de Gaulle. Sur le plan politique la lutte contre Daech ne pourra être efficace que si elle s’appuie sur une transition politique permettant de mettre un terme au conflit syrien qui a fait et continue de faire le lit du terrorisme. Cette résolution crée donc les conditions d’une mobilisation internationale: Dans ce contexte nous en appelons à l’Europe. Mon pays a demandé et obtenu cette semaine de l’Union européenne l’activation pour la première fois de son histoire de la clause de solidarité mutuelle. Car la France paie un lourd tribut dans sa lutte contre le terrorisme contre Daech en Syrie et en Irak mais également contre Al-Qaeda au Sahel. Nous attendons que l’Europe se mobilise activement à nos côtés pour notre sécurité partagée et celle des pays frontaliers de la Syrie. Nous en appelons également à tous les membres du Conseil de sécurité et au-delà. C’est dans cet esprit que le Président de la République se rendra la semaine prochaine à Washington puis à Moscou. Nous avons pris et prendrons contact avec de multiples partenaires. Nous sommes en effet déterminés à obtenir une mobilisation aussi large que possible. Face à Daech nous avons l’humanité en commun. Nous les peuples des Nations unies avons le devoir de la défendre."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; UNSC Resolution 2249ISILAirstrikes"English: http://www.franceonu.org/Against-Daesh-we-have-our-common-humanity
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Face-a-Daech-nous-avons-l-humanite-en-commun"https://perma.cc/8P6D-B9PJ
France2015-09-30"Speech by Laurent Fabius Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development – Security Council"Public statement"""In the face of Daesh’s barbarity which knows no bounds the Security Council has unfortunately more often than not been a powerless council. International public opinion and what the victims of this tragedy are now asking us can be summed up in two words: act quickly. This is also France’s position. And I would add: if possible act together.
France is an independent power. We are seeking peace and security all over the world. And in Iraq and Syria it’s this desire for peace that has influenced and will influence our choices.
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In Syria the situation is even more complex. Indeed the Daesh terrorist group has thrived with in reality the complicity of Bashar al-Assad’s regime. Its hold on the Syrian territory has expanded over the last few months with the city of Raqqa at its center. The influx of foreign fighters has increased and with it the terrorist threat well beyond the Levant region. ... A military response by the coalition has been prepared. We believe that it should be strengthened.
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Some people are now suggesting that we join forces in order to form a large coalition against Daesh in Syria. Russia has just presented the principles of a resolution at the Security Council. What is France’s position? It includes several principles that I would like to set out: First of all we need to target Daesh everywhere that we can. ... In Syria the coalition’s air forces have been engaged in strikes for several months and on Sunday on the basis of a decision by President Hollande French planes targeted a training camp where attacks notably against our country were being planned."" --Permanent Mission of France to the UN Official Translation""""Je vais centrer mon propos sur la lutte contre le terrorisme en Irak et en Syrie. Face à la barbarie sans limite de Daech le Conseil de sécurité a été malheureusement le plus souvent le conseil de l’impuissance. La demande que nous adressent maintenant les victimes de ce drame et l’opinion publique internationale tient en deux mots : agissez vite. C’est aussi la position de la France. Et j’ajouterai : si possible dans l’unité.
La France est une puissance indépendante. Partout dans le monde nous recherchons la paix et la sécurité. Et en Irak et en Syrie c’est cette exigence qui a déterminé et qui déterminera nos choix.
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En Syrie la situation est encore plus complexe. Le groupe terroriste Daech a en effet prospéré avec en réalité la complicité du régime de M. Bachar al Assad. Son emprise sur le territoire syrien s’est étendue au cours de ces derniers mois avec la ville de Raqqa comme centre. Le flux des combattants étrangers a augmenté et avec lui le risque terroriste bien au-delà de la région du Levant. ... Une réponse militaire de la coalition s’est organisée. Nous pensons qu’elle doit être renforcée.
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Aujourd’hui certains nous proposent d’unir nos forces pour former en Syrie une grande coalition contre Daech. La Russie vient de présenter les principes d’une résolution au Conseil de sécurité. Quelle est la position de la France ? Elle tient en quelques principes que je veux énoncer : D’abord il faut frapper Daech partout où on peut le faire. ... En Syrie les forces aériennes de la coalition sont engagées depuis plusieurs mois et dimanche dernier sur décision du président de la République des avions français sont intervenus contre un camp d’entraînement où se préparaient des attentats notamment contre notre pays."""Individual self-defenseISILAirstrikes"English: http://www.franceonu.org/Defeating-terrorism-will-require-long-term-action-9074
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Vaincre-le-terrorisme-sera-une-action-de-long-terme"https://perma.cc/NUZ2-Z4Z2
France2012-11-14"Statement by Mr. Philippe Bertoux Political Counsellor of the Permanent Mission of France to the United Nations"Public statement"""Nuclear radiological biological and chemical terrorism are some of the main threats to our security.
The possibility that weapons of mass destruction may fall into the hands of non-State actors or terrorists is a real threat that affects us all. Since the Bashar Al-Assad regime confirmed in July the presence of chemical weapons in Syria we are very concerned about the safety of those stockpiles and by the risk of uncontrolled proliferation which would be catastrophic for the stability of the region."" --UN Official Translation"Individual self-defenseAssad regimeWMD non-proliferation measureshttp://www.franceonu.org/14-November-2012-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/GW8E-6GA5
France2012-01-31"Statement by Mr. Alain Juppé ministre d’Etat Minister of Foreign and European Affairs in the Security Council"Public statement"""I also welcome the decision by the Kingdom of Morocco to present the draft resolution that France fully supports.
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People have made comparisons with the conflict in Libya. This is a mere pretext They’re claiming that there’s a plan directed toward a military intervention in Syria. This is a chimera. Nothing absolutely nothing in the draft resolution circulated to the Security Council members by the Permanent Representative of Morocco can be interpreted as an authorization to use force. This draft resolution doesn’t come under Chapter VII. We are not preparing a military intervention."" --PILAC Informal Translation"UNSC ResolutionUnclearNot military forcehttp://www.franceonu.org/31-January-2012-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/X2PN-U2GU
France2013-09-27"Statement by Mr. Laurent Fabius Minister of Foreign Affairs at the Seucrity Council"Public statement"""Tonight in the midst of the Syrian crisis the Security Council has finally proven itself worthy of its name. On 21 August the regime of Bashar al-Assad committed the unacceptable. It killed nearly 1400 civilians including hundreds of children with gas. The use of chemical weapons so abominable that has been banned for over 100 years is clear in this instance. All evidence points to the regime. No one can contest it in good faith.
As a result of the threat of strikes which was not a mere stratagem we have finally moved forward."""Other: Responsibility to ProtectAssad regimeAirstrikeshttp://www.franceonu.org/27-September-2013-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/4L4D-USZV
France2014-11-19"Statement by Mr. François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in the Security Council"Public statement"""More and more regions are being affected by terrorism with groups and practices that flout every precept of law and humanity now being inflicted on new populations. Daesh constitutes an unprecedented threat to countries in the region but also to the rest of the world.
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Terrorism is evolving and directly threatens our societies thanks to the phenomenon of foreign terrorist fighters. Terrorists including Daesh rally people — often young people — to their cause. More than 15000 fanatical individuals have thus joined as parties in the fight Syria and Iraq. Among them are the 376 French nationals or people living in France. In total more than 1000 are involved in jihadist ranks in various ways. The fight against this phenomenon is a priority for France’s internal security."""Individual self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/19-November-2014-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/S3Y2-S7RE
France2014-10-21"Statement by Mr. François Delattre Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations in the Security Council"Public statement"""In Syria Bashar al-Assad’s regime deliberately encouraged the development of Daesh in order to block the moderates who are therefore fighting two forms of barbarity: that of the regime and that of Daesh.
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The Syrian crisis calls for two responses:
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— in the short term the capabilities of Daesh which has its rear base in the eastern part of Syria must be reduced. France supports the coalition’s strikes against Daesh. France is actively contributing to the fight against terrorism within the framework of a task-sharing arrangement. We are also continuing to support the Syrian National Coalition’s democratic opposition led by Hadi al-Bahra. This support is and will be political financial and material."" --PILAC Informal Translation"Collective self-defenseISIL; Assad regime"Airstrikes against ISIL political/financial/diplomatic against Assad regime"http://www.franceonu.org/21-October-2014-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/4J59-9Q3Q
France2014-09-19"Statement by Mr. Laurent Fabius Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development at the Security Council"Public statement"""The terrorist group Daesh has seized control of part of Iraq and Syria. ... They represent a clear challenge to the international order and the founding principles that underpin the United Nations. Thus far they have attacked Iraq after having thrived in Syria with the regime’s support but their true aim is to extend to the entire region and beyond. Let us be clear. If they could they would want to hold us all or almost all at knifepoint and gunpoint. Before such a threat there is no choice but to take action.
France in line with its principles and tradition has decided to shoulder its responsibilities. We did so recently to face terrorism in Mali and in a different context in the Central African Republic. We did so in Syria where we were among the first to support the moderate opposition against both Bashar Al-Assad and the terrorists.
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A bridge of international solidarity towards Iraq is truly what is needed. And yet the evidence also points to the fact that the rear bases of Daesh in Syria need to be weakened specifically through powerful support to the moderate Syrian opposition. We must act on all those fronts and quickly because we know from experience that the cost of action dramatically increases the longer it takes us to take a decision and move to action.
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The message of France in this struggle is clear. For peace and against terrorism we must assume our responsibilities. The Daesh murderers must be fought and beaten; only then will Iraq and the entire region find peace and security."" --UN Official Translation"Collective self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/19-September-2014-Security-Councilhttps://perma.cc/NJA3-DAC4
France2014-08-15"Explanation of vote by Mr Alexis Lamek Deputy Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations chargé d’Affaires a.i."Public statement"""France welcomes the unanimous adoption of resolution 2170 (2014) which demonstrates the Security Council’s determination to act against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant.
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The resolution is also a new milestone in the necessary mobilization of the international community to address the threat posed to all by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant."" --UN Official Translation"UNSC Resolution 2170ISILUnclearhttp://www.franceonu.org/15-August-2014-Security-Council https://perma.cc/J2DP-SZS6
France2015-09-15Declaration by the Government (Prime Minister Valls) in the National Assembly on the engagement of the air force over Syrian territory; Debate on the Government's statement on the engagement of the air force over Syrian territoryPublic statement"""Mr. Manuel Valls Prime Minister ... the President of the Republic announced on 7 September: France has decided to carry out reconnaissance flights over Syria
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In recent months territories controlled by terrorist groups were extened omto Syrian soil; A progression that further destabilized the entire region. Let us be lucid: this advance of Daesh is above all the result of the cynical calculation of Bashar al Assad. Daesh was first the instrument to take the moderate opposition into a vice then to crush it. It was also for the regime the terrible justification of crimes the use of chemical weapons against its own population. Today the result is the abandonment at the hands of the jihadists of entire regions. Henceforth the great Syrian East that is to say 30% of Syria constitutes for Daesh a solid bastion with the fatal consequences we know. The first consequence as I said is the threat to our security. As we know the jihadist threat - the one directed against France - comes from the areas that Daesh controls. There are in Syria command centers of this organization. It is also from Syria that the channels that recruit many individuals wanting to take up arms carry out the fighting there but also strike in return their own country are organized. Finally in Syria the propaganda which through the staging of violence is constantly irrigating social networks especially Francophones is structured and fueled. To date we have often recalled it with the Minister of the Interior between 20000 and 30000 foreign nationals are registered in the Iraqi-Syrian channels. We estimate the number of French or residents in France enrolled in the jihadist channels at 1880: 491 are on the spot 133 have so far died and increasingly through murderous actions in the form of attacks suicides.
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Ladies and gentlemen since Tuesday September 8 our air forces are flying over Syria. It is first and foremost an intelligence campaign thanks to reconnaissance flights. Several missions have already been carried out. This campaign will last the time it will take certainly several weeks. We need to better identify and locate Daesh's forces in order to be able to strike it on Syrian soil and to exercise as I would emphasize in particular our own self-defense as provided for in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations United. These reconnaissance missions are conducted on a national basis in full autonomy of decision and action. Full autonomy of decision because we alone choose the overflight areas to carry our research. Full autonomy of action because as the President of the Republic said yesterday strikes will be necessary.
And we alone will choose only goals to hit. But of course it is out of the question that by these strikes we were helping to strengthen the regime of Bashar al-Assad. ... We do not change strategy. We do not change targets. We are fighting terrorism. But - with the vigilance and knowledge of the situations that Jean-Yves Le Drian - we adapt our military means and our presence according to the political context.
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Mr. President ladies and gentlemen I have said before this Assembly that France is at war with terrorism jihadism and radical Islamism.
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Mr. Philippe Nauche: In the center and south of the country after several tactical victories such as the capture of the city of Ramadi in the Anbar Daesh reorganizes and reinforces its defenses thanks to the continuous flow of foreign fighters transiting from its bases located in Syria which are constantly expanding with all the consequences we know. It is this situation that has led the President of the Republic to extend the zone of action of Operation Chammal initially limited to Iraq over the Syrian territory. Because the destructive madness of Daech is no longer confined to the region of the Levant alone: it wants to touch the heart of Europe the heart of France through attacks aimed at victimizing as many possible. In Paris in January in Villejuif in April in Isère in June on a train linking Amsterdam to Paris in August: plans for attacks have multiplied since the beginning of the year each time linked to individuals belonging to Daech and acting from Syria. ... Faced with these armed aggressions these numerous attacks on its security our country has no choice but to exercise its right of self-defense as defined in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations. Also if strikes of opportunity occurred during the reconnaissance flights that we are discussing today they would be part of a completely transparent international legality.
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Mr. Manuel Valls Prime Minister: I repeat your formula: Of course we are no warmongers. It is Daech who has declared war against our values against the very idea we have of civilization.
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Mr. François Asensi: ""On the subject of Syria our position is clear and we firmly support the principle of the engagement of a military force against Daesh as long as it is part of the United Nations and is accompanied by a political road map involving all the regional players. Alas we regret that the plan proposed today by the executive takes an opposite way! ... Moreover an intervention outside of any UN authorization would put France into illegality under international law."
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Mr. Manuel Valls Prime Minister: ""You also mentioned the legal framework Mr. Asensi. Daesh was recognized as a terrorist organization by Security Council resolution 2170. Mrs Guigou recalled we are fully within the framework of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and we are in a situation of collective self-defense."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""M. Manuel Valls Premier ministre. ... le Président de la République l’a annoncé le 7 septembre dernier : la France a décidé de procéder à des vols de reconnaissance au-dessus de la Syrie.
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Au cours des derniers mois les territoires contrôlés par les groupes terroristes se sont étendus sur le sol syrien ; une progression qui a déstabilisé plus encore l’ensemble de la région. Soyons lucides : cette avancée de Daech est avant tout le résultat du calcul cynique de Bachar al Assad. Daech a d’abord été l’instrument pour prendre l’opposition modérée en étau puis pour l’écraser. Ce fut aussi pour le régime la terrible justification de crimes de l’emploi d’armes chimiques contre sa propre population. Aujourd’hui le résultat c’est l’abandon aux mains des djihadistes de régions entières. Dorénavant c’est tout le grand Est syrien c’est-à-dire 30 % de la Syrie qui constitue pour Daech un solide bastion avec les conséquences funestes que nous connaissons.
La première conséquence je l’ai dit c’est la menace pour notre sécurité. Nous le savons la menace djihadiste – celle dirigée contre la France – provient des zones que Daech contrôle. Il y a en Syrie des centres de commandement de cette organisation. C’est également depuis la Syrie que s’organisent les filières qui recrutent de nombreux individus voulant prendre les armes mener les combats là-bas mais aussi frapper en retour leur propre pays. C’est enfin en Syrie que se structure et s’alimente la propagande qui par la mise en scène de la violence irrigue constamment les réseaux sociaux notamment francophones. À ce jour nous l’avons souvent rappelé avec le ministre de l’intérieur entre 20 000 et 30 000 ressortissants étrangers sont recensés dans les filières irako-syriennes. Nous estimons le nombre de Français ou des résidents en France enrôlés dans les filières djihadistes à 1 880 : 491 sont sur place 133 ont à ce jour trouvé la mort et de plus en plus au travers d’actions meurtrières sous forme d’attentats suicides.
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Mesdames messieurs les députés depuis le mardi 8 septembre nos forces aériennes survolent donc la Syrie. Il s’agit d’abord et avant tout d’une campagne de renseignement grâce à des vols de reconnaissance. Plusieurs missions ont d’ores et déjà été réalisées. Cette campagne durera le temps qu’il faudra plusieurs semaines certainement.
Nous devons mieux identifier et localiser le dispositif de Daech pour être en mesure de le frapper sur le sol syrien et d’exercer ainsi – je veux le souligner tout particulièrement – notre légitime défense comme le prévoit l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations unies. Ces missions de reconnaissance sont conduites à titre national en pleine autonomie de décision et d’action.
Pleine autonomie de décision car nous choisissons seuls les zones de survol où porter notre recherche.
Pleine autonomie d’action car le Président de la République l’a encore dit hier des frappes seront nécessaires. Et nous choisirons seuls les objectifs à frapper. Mais bien sûr il est hors de question que par ces frappes nous contribuions à renforcer le régime de Bachar al Assad. ...
Nous ne changeons pas de stratégie. Nous ne changeons pas de cible. Nous luttons contre le terrorisme. Mais – avec la vigilance et la connaissance des situations qu’a Jean-Yves Le Drian – nous adaptons nos moyens militaires et notre présence en fonction du contexte politique. ... Monsieur le président mesdames messieurs les députés je l’ai dit devant cette assemblée : la France est en guerre contre le terrorisme le djihadisme l’islamisme radical.
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M Philippe Nauche: Au centre et sud du pays après plusieurs victoires tactiques comme la prise de la ville de Ramadi dans l’Anbar Daech se réorganise et renforce ses défenses grâce au flot continu de combattants étrangers transitant depuis ses bases arrière situées en Syrie et qui ne cessent de s’agrandir avec toutes les conséquences que nous connaissons. C’est cette situation qui a conduit le Président de la République à élargir au territoire syrien la zone d’action de l’opération Chammal initialement limitée à l’Irak. Car la folie destructrice de Daech ne se cantonne plus à la seule région du Levant : elle veut désormais toucher le cœur de l’Europe le cœur de la France à travers des attentats visant à faire le plus grand nombre de victimes possible. À Paris en janvier à Villejuif en avril en Isère en juin dans un train reliant Amsterdam à Paris en août : les projets d’attentats se multiplient depuis le début de l’année avec à chaque fois des liens établis avec des individus appartenant à Daech et agissant depuis la Syrie. ... Face à ces agressions armées à ces nombreuses atteintes à sa sécurité notre pays n’a d’autre choix que d’exercer son droit de légitime défense tel que défini à l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations unies. Aussi si des frappes d’opportunité venaient à se présenter lors des vols de reconnaissance dont nous discutons aujourd’hui elles s’inscriraient dans une légalité internationale tout à fait transparente.
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M. Manuel Valls Premier ministre: Je reprends votre formule : nous ne sommes pas des va-t-en-guerre. C’est Daech qui a déclaré la guerre contre nos valeurs contre l’idée même que nous nous faisons de la civilisation.
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M. François Asensi: Au sujet de la Syrie notre position est claire. Nous soutenons avec détermination le principe de l’engagement d’une force militaire contre Daech pour autant qu’il s’inscrive dans le cadre de l’ONU et s’accompagne d’une feuille de route politique associant l’ensemble des acteurs régionaux. Hélas nous regrettons que le plan proposé aujourd’hui par l’exécutif emprunte un chemin opposé ! ... Par ailleurs une intervention hors de toute autorisation onusienne placerait la France dans l’illégalité au regard du droit international.
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M. Manuel Valls Premier ministre: Vous évoquiez également le cadre juridique monsieur Asensi. Daech a été reconnu comme organisation terroriste par la résolution 2170 du Conseil de sécurité. Mme Guigou le rappelait nous sommes pleinement dans le cadre de l’article 51 de la Charte des Nations Unies et nous sommes en situation de légitime défense collective.""""Individual self-defense Collective self-defense"ISILAirstrikes; Military Forcehttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/cri/2014-2015-extra2/20152001.asphttps://perma.cc/T67P-5P24
France2014-09-17"Hearing of Mr. Jean Yves Le Drian Minister of Defense in the National Defense and Armed Forces Committee of the National Assembly"Public Statement"Mr. Jean-Jacques Candelier MP: ""... in Syria what precise intervention do you foresee?
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The Minister:: If we decide to intervene in Iraq it would be once again at the request of the Iraqi government in the same way as in Mali. I recall that Security Council Resolution 2170 states that it is necessary to fight Daesh.
From the time when there will be an intervention against Daesh in Iraq it will ensure that the Iraqi forces can retake lost territory leading forces Daesh to retreat to Syria. But I'm not Sure that Bashar al-Assad would ask us to intervene or that in such a case it would have to be answered. We will have to do everything so that to continue fighting Daesh does not lead indirectly to ally with him."" --PILAC Informal Translation""M. Jean-Jacques Candelier député: ""... En Syrie quelle intervention précise prévoyez-vous?
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M. le ministre: Si nous décidions d’intervenir en Irak ce serait encore une fois sur demande du gouvernement irakien de la même façon qu’au Mali. Je rappelle que la résolution 2170 du Conseil de sécurité indique qu’il est nécessaire de combattre Daesh.
À partir du moment où il y aura une intervention contre Daesh en Irak il faudra faire en sorte que les forces irakiennes puissent reconquérir le territoire perdu ce qui conduira les forces de Daesh à se replier vers la Syrie. Or je ne suis pas sûr que Bachar el-Assad nous demanderait d’intervenir ni que dans un tel cas il faudrait y répondre. Nous devrons tout faire pour que continuer à combattre Daesh n’aboutisse pas à indirectement s’allier avec ce dernier."""Collective self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/cr-cdef/13-14/c1314066.asphttps://perma.cc/2VYB-6Q66
France2016-04-27"Hearing in camera of Mr Jérôme Bonnafont Director of North Africa and the Middle East at the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development Mr Didier Chabert Deputy Director of the Middle East Mr. Philippe Errera Director General of International Relations and Strategy of the Ministry of Defense and Mr. Fouad El Khatib Head of the Department of North Africa and Middle East"Public Statement"Mr. Philippe Errera Director General of International Relations and Strategy of the Ministry of Defense: ""The first Rafale reconnaissance flights over Syria took place on September 8 and the first strikes against a Daesh site in Syria took place on September 27. But it was in the aftermath of the November 13 attacks that we have substantially intensified our strikes against Daesh as announced on November 16 and the intensification of these strikes and the deployment of the carrier group. It includes eighteen Rafale and eight Super-Standard modernized which allowed us in 48 hours to carry out six raids and destroy thirty-five objectives.
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Following the attacks of 13 November the President of the Republic asked the Minister of Defense to call his European counterparts to solidarity by invoking Article 42-7 of the Treaty on European Union. This call made it possible politically to facilitate the consolidation and acceleration of the engagement of a number of our European partners. I think especially of the UK which extended its strikes from Iraq to Syria and Germany which has carried out intelligence gathering flights over Syria. This process could take a little more time with other European partners because of their internal political debate and the necessary parliamentary validation of their engagement. For example last week Denmark approved a contribution that is significant in terms of the size of the country as it consists of the dispatch of seven F-16s a C- 130 trainers and special forces in Iraq and if necessary Syria. A number of other partners including Finland the Czech Republic and Poland have as we have invited pledged contributions not directly to Syria and Iraq but to other theaters where they can bear some of the burden currently borne by our forces particularly in sub-Saharan Africa within the UN missions in Mali and the Central African Republic.
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Moreover at the insistence of France in particular with the United States but the coalition defense ministers agreed on this point last February - we consider it essential to make the recovery of Raqqah the main objective of our action in Syria because it is essential for us in terms of internal security. Meanwhile we continue to increase our efforts to weaken the financial capabilities of Daesh whether oil revenues currency or trafficking and human capacity by continuing the fight against the back and forth of foreign fighters. The success of these objectives which is now a realistic horizon - I would not have said the same thing in 2014 - even if I do not venture to set a date will not mean the end of operations or our commitment and alas! That of the terrorist threat weighing on French soil. On the one hand because Daesh is not the only terrorist group we are confronted with: Al-Qaeda whether it is its affiliated groups in Syria such as JAN AQPA or AQIM remains a source of concern.
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Unfortunately it has been a long time since this kind of war has been waged especially against terrorist groups. We are faced with adversaries who combine the conventional military capabilities of some states with the assets of a terrorist group that is the ability to blend into the population and operate in urban areas so that the use of the air force - our main tool when we do not deploy troops on the ground - is limited by the need to avoid collateral damage in accordance with the law of armed conflict. Our ability to conduct effective strikes in sufficient volume is thus directly related to the information we have particularly the ISR (Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance). That is why we have been particularly active with our European partners so that even those who for political reasons do not wish to engage in strikes can put at our disposal means of intelligence gathering - I think in particular of surveillance drones - which are necessary to constitute a goal record and evaluate the result of the strikes. ... Moreover if Raqqah is linked to our internal security it is because it is there that Frenchmen are trained French to carry out attacks on the French soil.
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This is one of the centers of gravity of Daesh in Syria. The more it is weakened in Raqqah the more it is globally and the less the threat to France is important."" --PILAC Informal Translation""M. Philippe Errera directeur général des relations internationales et de la stratégie du ministère de la défense: ""Les premiers vols de reconnaissance de Rafale au-dessus de la Syrie ont eu lieu le 8 septembre et les premières frappes contre un site de Daech en Syrie sont intervenues le 27 septembre. Mais c’est au lendemain des attentats du 13 novembre que nous avons intensifié de manière substantielle nos frappes contre Daech puisque dès le 16 novembre ont été annoncés et l’intensification de ces frappes et le déploiement du groupe aéronaval. Celui-ci comprend dix-huit Rafale et huit Super-Étendard modernisés qui nous ont permis en 48 heures de mener six raids et de détruire trente-cinq objectifs.
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À la suite des attentats du 13 novembre le Président de la République avait demandé au ministre de la défense d’appeler ses homologues européens à la solidarité en invoquant l’article 42-7 du traité sur l’Union européenne. Cet appel a permis de faciliter politiquement la consolidation et l’accélération de l’engagement d’un certain nombre de nos partenaires européens. Je pense en particulier au Royaume-Uni qui a étendu ses frappes de l’Irak à la Syrie et à l’Allemagne qui a procédé à des vols de recueil de renseignements au-dessus de la Syrie. Ce processus a pu prendre un peu plus de temps s’agissant d’autres partenaires européens en raison leur débat politique intérieur et de la nécessaire validation parlementaire de leur engagement. C’est ainsi par exemple que le Danemark a approuvé la semaine dernière une contribution importante au regard de la taille de ce pays puisqu’elle consiste dans l’envoi de sept F-16 d’un C-130 de formateurs et de forces spéciales en Irak et si nécessaire en Syrie. Un certain nombre d’autres partenaires notamment la Finlande la République tchèque et la Pologne ont comme nous les y avions invités annoncé des contributions non pas directement en Syrie et en Irak mais sur d’autres théâtres où ils peuvent assumer une partie du fardeau actuellement supporté par nos forces en particulier en Afrique subsaharienne au sein des missions des Nations unies au Mali et en République centrafricaine.
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Par ailleurs – là encore sur l’insistance de la France notamment auprès des États-Unis mais les ministres de la défense de la coalition se sont accordés sur ce point en février dernier – nous estimons indispensable de faire de la reprise de Raqqah l’objectif principal de notre action en Syrie car elle est pour nous essentielle en termes de sécurité intérieure. Parallèlement nous continuerons à accroître nos efforts pour affaiblir les capacités financières de Daech qu’il s’agisse de revenus pétroliers de devises ou de trafics et ses capacités humaines en poursuivant la lutte contre les allers-retours des foreign fighters. La réussite de ces objectifs qui s’inscrit désormais dans un horizon réaliste – je n’aurais pas dit la même chose en 2014 – même si je ne m’aventurerai pas à avancer une date ne signifiera pas la fin des opérations ni celle de notre engagement ni hélas ! celle de la menace terroriste pesant sur le sol français. D’une part parce que Daech n’est pas le seul groupe terroriste auquel nous sommes confrontés : Al-Qaïda qu’il s’agisse de ses groupes affiliés en Syrie notamment le JAN d’AQPA ou d’AQMI reste une source de préoccupations. ... Malheureusement cela fait longtemps que l’on ne mène plus de guerre de ce type en particulier contre des groupes terroristes. Nous sommes confrontés à des adversaires qui allient les capacités militaires conventionnelles de certains États et les atouts d’un groupe terroriste c’est-à-dire l’aptitude à se fondre dans la population et à opérer en zone urbaine de sorte que l’emploi de l’arme aérienne – notre principal outil dès lors que nous ne déployons pas de troupes au sol – est limité par la nécessité d’éviter les dommages collatéraux conformément au droit des conflits armés. Notre capacité à mener des frappes efficaces en volume suffisant est ainsi directement liée aux renseignements dont nous disposons en particulier l’ISR (Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance). C’est pourquoi nous avons été particulièrement actifs auprès de nos partenaires européens pour que même ceux qui pour des raisons politiques ne souhaitaient pas s’engager dans des frappes puissent mettre à notre disposition des moyens de recueil du renseignement – je pense en particulier à des drones de surveillance – lesquels sont nécessaires pour constituer un dossier d’objectif et évaluer le résultat des frappes. ... Par ailleurs si Raqqah est liée à notre sécurité intérieure c’est parce que c’est là que sont formés des Français pour mener des attentats sur le sol français.
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C’est l’un des centres de gravité de Daech en Syrie. Plus celui-ci est affaibli à Raqqah plus il l’est globalement et moins la menace pesant sur la France est importante."""Individual self-defense; Article 42-7 of the Treaty on European UnionISILAirstrikeshttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/rap-enq/r3922-t2.asphttps://perma.cc/7MBA-VPR8
France2016-04-27"Hearing in camera of Mr Jérôme Bonnafont Director of North Africa and the Middle East at the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development Mr Didier Chabert Deputy Director of the Middle East Mr. Philippe Errera Director General of International Relations and Strategy of the Ministry of Defense and Mr. Fouad El Khatib Head of the Department of North Africa and Middle East"Public Statement"Mr. Jérôme Bonnafont Director of North Africa and the Middle East at the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Development: ""To return to the point you have just made Mr. Chairman what would be the legal basis for an intervention in Iraq or Syria? There is a legal basis now which is the one under which we are operating against Daesh on the basis of self-defense and an explicit request from the Iraqi government. However it is an extremely complex environment given the number of national and international actors already present on the ground. There are therefore a multiplicity of factors to be taken into account."" --PILAC Informal Translation""M. Jérôme Bonnafont directeur d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient à l’administration centrale du ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international: ""Pour revenir sur le point que vous venez d’évoquer monsieur le président quelle serait la base légale d’une intervention en Irak ou en Syrie ? Il existe une base juridique actuellement qui est celle avec laquelle nous opérons contre Daech sur la base de la légitime défense et d’une demande explicite du gouvernement irakien. C’est cependant un environnement extrêmement complexe vu le nombre d’acteurs nationaux et internationaux déjà présents sur le terrain. Il y a donc une multiplicité de facteurs à prendre en compte."""Collective self-defenseISILUnclearhttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/rap-enq/r3922-t2.asphttps://perma.cc/8ZJH-UCUP
France2016-04-27"Hearing in camera of Mr Jérôme Bonnafont Director of North Africa and the Middle East at the headquarters of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development Mr Didier Chabert Deputy Director of the Middle East Mr. Philippe Errera Director General of International Relations and Strategy of the Ministry of Defense and Mr. Fouad El Khatib Head of the Department of North Africa and Middle East"Public Statement"Mr. Jérôme Bonnafont Director of North Africa and the Middle East at the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Development: ""The phenomenon of Daesh I repeat was not born in the countries of the Arab Spring. It must be emphasized that in Syria its emergence is due to the decision of Bashar al-Assad to release the Islamists who were in his prisons and to concede to them part of the territory within the framework of an implicit pact of non-aggression so as to be able to present itself as an indispensable element in the fight against islamic terrorism if it has only this means to justify itself towards the international community. You will observe moreover that just as Palmyra fell into the hands of Daesh almost without fighting it was retaken by the regime and the Russians virtually without fighting. You will also observe that some soldiers of the regime were there but that many of them were Hezbollah Pasdaran and the regular Iranian forces supported by Russian forces. Thus if military operations in Syria are nominally led by President Bashar al-Assad they are effectively carried out by this coalition of foreign troops which are fighting against the targets that the regime designates them - Aleppo now - to consolidate what is called ""useful Syria"" and preserve the power of Bashar al-Assad."" --PILAC Informal Translation""M. Jérôme Bonnafont directeur d’Afrique du Nord et du Moyen-Orient à l’administration centrale du ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international: ""Le phénomène Daech je le répète n’est pas né dans les pays des printemps arabes. En Syrie il faut souligner que son émergence est due à la décision de Bachar el-Assad de libérer les islamistes qui étaient dans ses prisons et de leur concéder une partie de son territoire dans le cadre d’un pacte implicite de non-agression de façon à pouvoir se présenter s’il n’a plus que ce moyen pour se justifier vis-à-vis de la communauté internationale comme un élément indispensable dans la lutte contre l’islam terroriste. Vous observerez du reste que de même que Palmyre est tombée entre les mains de Daech quasiment sans combats de même elle a été reprise par le régime et les Russes quasiment sans combats. Vous observerez également qu’y étaient présents certes quelques soldats du régime mais qu’il s’agissait pour beaucoup d’unités du Hezbollah des Pasdaran et de l’armée régulière iranienne appuyées par des forces russes. Ainsi si les opérations militaires en Syrie sont conduites nominalement par le président Bachar el-Assad elles le sont effectivement par cette coalition de troupes étrangères qui mènent l’assaut contre les cibles que le régime leur désigne – Alep actuellement – afin de consolider ce que l’on appelle « la Syrie utile » et de préserver le pouvoir de Bachar el-Assad."""UnclearISIL; Assad regimeUnclearhttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/rap-enq/r3922-t2.asphttps://perma.cc/99YC-G2WZ
France2016-02-02"Hearing of Mr. Didier Chabert Deputy Director of the Middle East and Mr. Xavier Chatel de Brancion Deputy Director Egypt-Levant Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development"Public Statement"Mr. Xavier Chatel de Brancion Deputy Director Egypt-Levant at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development: ""In Syria from the year 2000 onwards a specific breeding ground has favored the emergence of Daesh. Bashar al-Assad showing a frightening cynicism helped nurtured and managed the Islamic State in order to undermine the moderate opposition and create a vacuum between himself and terrorism to ensure his survival even if it costed the country's complete destruction. France must act militarily but it must also participate in the elaboration of a political solution enabling the inclusion of Sunnis. Without a political strand the international coalition will not be able to eradicate Daesh.
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The manipulation orchestrated by Bashar al-Assad precedes the revolution. The former Prime Minister in office in 2012 and former governor of Latakia and Deir es-Zor who held important positions in the Baath party found in 2005 and 2006 that the mujahideen were leaving Deir es-Zor for Iraq with the encouragement of the moukhabarats the members of the intelligence services. Bashar al-Assad wanted the Americans to get bogged down in Iraq and to make them suffer losses he was fueling the terrorists and allowing them to use his country as a base. Al-Qaeda in Iraq and the ancestor of the Islamic State of Iraq already had relations with the Syrian services.
At the beginning of the revolution the same prime minister recounts the words of Bashar al-Assad according to which one could not 'solve the revolution otherwise than by its militarization to make prevail an Islamist character.' Bashar al-Assad understood that his only chance of surviving this insurrection which capitalized on the exclusion of the majority of the Syrian people was to liquidate the moderates and transform the rest into a terrorist movement so that foreign countries did not have an alternative to supporting the regime. With a decree of 31 May 2011 Assad freed by presidential pardon Abu al-Julani the leader of al-Qaeda in Syria Zahran Allouche the leader of Jaysh al-Islam Abu al- And Hassan Aboud the leader of Ahrar al-Sham. Bashar al-Assad therefore released the 'CAC 40' of terrorism and Salafism to create a vacuum between him and the revolution.
As a result of this initial manipulation Bashar al-Assad's regime has formed and maintained the influence of the terrorists in order that they may clamp down on the moderates and prevent the emergence of any alternative. Thus the headquarters of IS in Raqqa whose location was known was not bombed until the arrival of the international coalition. According to our services the army of the Syrian government only marginally strikes IS except for a few actions near Palmyra. The regime abandoned almost without fighting places like the Tabqa base within which the IS engaged in numerous massacres and placed heads on pikes which provoked a very strong protest movement among the Alawites who felt they were being abandoned by the authorities. The IS and the regime have also concluded proximity agreements for example for the evacuation of Yarmouk and Al-Bab combatants. Only three or four of the eight fronts of the Syrian army see it clash with the IS the others prioritize the confrontation with the moderate opposition. The Syrian regime continues to pay the salaries of civil servants working in areas controlled by the IS but not in those held by the opposition and also buys oil from Daesh. The supporters of the Syrian regime do not attach any priority to fight against Daesh.
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Thus 70% of Russian strikes are aimed at moderate opposition and only 30% Daesh this relationship was even more unbalanced before Daesh destroyed an A320 aircraft filled with Russian tourists. Bashar al-Assad led a deliberate attempt to annihilate the moderate opposition in order to place the international community before the alternative of the regime in place or Daesh; so that between these two devils some may be tempted to choose one that does not attack French territory."" --PILAC Informal Translation""M. Xavier Chatel de Brancion sous-directeur Égypte-Levant au ministère des affaires étrangères et du développement international: ""En Syrie à partir des années 2000 un terreau spécifique a favorisé l’émergence de Daech. M. Bachar el-Assad faisant preuve d’un cynisme effrayant a aidé entretenu et ménagé l’État islamique afin de prendre en étau l’opposition modérée et de faire le vide entre lui et le terrorisme pour assurer sa survie dût-elle coûter la destruction complète du pays. La France doit agir militairement mais elle doit également participer à l’élaboration d’une solution politique qui permette l’inclusion des sunnites. Sans volet politique la coalition internationale ne parviendra pas à éradiquer Daech.
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La manipulation orchestrée par Bachar el-Assad préexiste à la révolution. L’ancien Premier ministre en poste en 2012 et ancien gouverneur de Lattaquié et de Deir es-Zor ayant exercé des responsabilités importantes dans le parti Baas a constaté en 2005 et 2006 que les moudjahidines quittaient Deir es-Zor pour l’Irak avec les encouragements des moukhabarats les membres des services de renseignement. Bachar el-Assad souhaitait l’enlisement des Américains en Irak et pour leur faire subir des pertes il alimentait les terroristes et leur permettait d’utiliser son pays comme base arrière. Al-Qaïda en Irak et l’ancêtre de l’EI l’État islamique d’Irak entretenaient déjà des relations avec les services syriens.
Au début de la révolution ce même Premier ministre relate les propos de Bachar Al-Assad selon lesquels on ne pouvait pas « résoudre la révolution autrement que par sa militarisation pour faire prévaloir un caractère islamiste ». Bachar el-Assad avait compris que sa seule chance de survivre à cette insurrection qui capitalisait sur l’exclusion de la majorité du peuple syrien était de liquider les modérés et de transformer le reste en mouvement terroriste afin que les pays extérieurs n’aient d’autre choix que de soutenir le régime. Par un décret du 31 mai 2011 Bachar el-Assad libère par grâce présidentielle Abu Luqman Abou Hamza – deux des principaux émirs de l’EI – Abou al-Joulani le dirigeant de Jabhat al-Nosra la filiale d’al-Qaïda en Syrie Zahran Allouche le chef de Jaysh al-Islam et Hassan Aboud le leader de Ahrar al-Sham. Bachar el-Assad a donc relâché le « CAC 40 » du terrorisme et du salafisme pour faire le vide entre lui et la révolution.
À la suite de cette manipulation initiale le régime de Bachar el-Assad a ménagé et entretenu l’influence des terroristes afin que ceux-ci prennent en étau les modérés et qu’ils empêchent l’émergence de toute alternative. Ainsi le quartier général de l’EI à Raqqa dont la localisation était connue n’a pas été bombardé jusqu’à l’arrivée de la coalition internationale. Selon nos services l’armée du gouvernement syrien ne frappe que marginalement l’EI si ce n’est quelques actions près de Palmyre. Le régime a abandonné presque sans combattre des lieux comme la base de Tabqa à l’intérieur de laquelle l’EI s’est livré à de nombreux massacres et a placé des têtes sur des piques ce qui a suscité un mouvement de contestation très fort chez les alaouites qui ont eu le sentiment d’être abandonnés par le pouvoir.
L’EI et le régime ont également conclu des accords de proximité par exemple pour l’évacuation des combattants de Yarmouk et d’Al-Bab. Seuls trois ou quatre des huit fronts de l’armée syrienne la voient s’affronter avec l’EI les autres prioritaires la mettant aux prises avec l’opposition modérée. Le régime syrien continue de payer les salaires des fonctionnaires travaillant dans des zones contrôlées par l’EI mais non dans celles tenues par l’opposition. Il achète également du pétrole à Daech. Les soutiens du régime syrien n’ont pas pour priorité de lutter contre Daech.
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Ainsi 70 % des frappes russes visent l’opposition modérée et seulement 30 % Daech et ce rapport était encore plus déséquilibré avant que Daech ne détruise un avion A320 rempli de touristes russes.
Bachar el-Assad a conduit une entreprise délibérée d’anéantissement de l’opposition modérée afin de placer la communauté internationale devant une alternative se résumant au régime en place ou à Daech ; afin qu’entre ces deux diables d’aucuns soient tentés de choisir celui qui n’attaque pas le territoire français."""Individual self-defenseISIL; Assad regimeUnclearhttp://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/rap-info/i3964-tII.asp#P420_211493https://perma.cc/8LC8-CM8W
France2015-09-08Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""In a letter dated 20 September 2014 addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2014/691) the Iraqi authorities requested the assistance of the international community in order to counter the attacks perpetrated by ISIL.
In accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations France has taken actions involving the participation of military aircraft in response to attacks carried out by ISIL from the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defensehttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_745.pdfhttps://perma.cc/ZP7B-JMCC
Germany2015-12-04ParliamentFormal written correspondence"""As a justification for the German intervention against ISIL in Iraq and Syria it was stated that the terrorist attacks in Tunisia Turkey Beirut against Russia and especially in Paris had shown that the terrorist organization acted far beyond the currently controlled territories in Syria and Iraq and also posed a global threat to peace and security. Furthermore with the attacks in Paris ISIL had attacked France and the liberal value system of Europe directly. Legally the right to collective self-defence according to article 51 of the United Nations Charter was cited as a justification. In addition the mission was designed to protect the people in the region from further systematic war crimes."" --PILAC Informal Translation"Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILGeneral Military Actionhttps://www.bundestag.de/dokumente/textarchiv/2015/kw49-bundeswehreinsatz-isis/397866https://perma.cc/DY4D-9JKK
Germany2015-12-10Letter from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Germany to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""In accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations I report to the Security Council on behalf of my Government that the Federal Republic of Germany in the exercise of the right of collective self-defence has initiated military measures against the terrorist organization Islamic State in Irq and the Levant (ISIL). These measures are directed against ISIL not against the Syrian Arab Republic.
The Security Council has confirmed in its resolution 2249(2015) of 20 November 2015 that ISIL 'constitutes a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security' and has called upon Member States to eradicate the safe haven that ISIL has established in significant parts of Iraq and the Syrian Arab Republic. ISIL has carried out and continues to carry out armed attacks against Iraq France and other states. These States have acted and continue to act by taking measures of self-defence.
ISIL has occupied a certain part of Syrian territory over which the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic does not at this time exercise effective control. States that have been subjected to armed attack by ISIL originating in this part of Syrian territory are therefore justified under Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to take necessary measures of self-defence even without the consent of the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic. Exercising the right of collective self-defence Germany will now support the military measures of those States that have been subjected to attacks by ISIL."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILGeneral Military Actionhttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_946.pdfhttps://perma.cc/YPM3-KSU4
Germany2015-12-15Statement by Defense Minister Ursula von der LeyenPublic Statement"""Germany's defense minister said on Tuesday she welcomed Saudi Arabia's announcement of the formation of a 34-state Islamic military coalition to combat terrorism.
Ursula von der Leyen told German broadcaster ZDF the alliance would be of help if it joined other countries fighting Islamic State (IS) adding that IS had gained strength from disagreement among various opposition parties on how to fight or who to protect.
"I think it's right that the opposition is forming a group but it needs to be - and this is important - part of the Vienna process that includes all countries fighting against IS like the U.S. Europe Russia Turkey Saudi Arabia but also Iran and China"" she said."""UnclearISILUnclearhttps://www.yahoo.com/news/germany-welcomes-34-state-islamic-military-alliance-against-103201415.html?ref=gshttps://perma.cc/CM8L-4XP8
Germany2016-07-11Speech by Federal Chancellor Merkel at the annual reception for the Diplomatic Corps on 11 July 2016Public Statement"""Whether in Syria or elsewhere - the struggle against the so-called Islamic state will continue. We must systematically deprive its followers of all ground so that the seeds of hatred can no longer sprout. The victims of the latest attacks in Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh Baghdad and Istanbul are also remind us to do so. I would also like to recall the victims of the cowardly attacks in Brussels and Paris.
After the acts of terror in its capital France appealed to the EU assistance clause. It was the first time a Member State had made use of this option in the Lisbon Treaty. As a result the military engagement against the IS was also extended on the German side. The IS has now lost much of its territory in Syria and Iraq. We support the Iraqi government in facilitating the return of refugees to the liberated areas. The main objective in this regard is to restore vital infrastructure."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Ob in Syrien oder anderswo – der Kampf gegen den sogenannten Islamischen Staat wird weitergehen. Wir müssen seinen Anhängern systematisch jeglichen Boden entziehen damit die Saat des Hasses nicht mehr aufgehen kann. Dazu mahnen uns auch die Opfer der jüngsten Anschläge in Saudi-Arabien und Bangladesch in Bagdad und Istanbul. Ich möchte an dieser Stelle auch nochmals an die Opfer der feigen Attentate in Brüssel und Paris erinnern.
Frankreich hat sich nach den Terrorakten in seiner Hauptstadt auf die EU-Beistandsklausel berufen. Es war das erste Mal dass ein Mitgliedstaat diese Möglichkeit des Vertrags von Lissabon genutzt hat. Infolgedessen wurde das militärische Engagement gegen den IS auch auf deutscher Seite ausgeweitet. Der IS hat mittlerweile große Teile seines Territoriums in Syrien und im Irak wieder verloren. Wir unterstützen die irakische Regierung dabei die Rückkehr von Flüchtlingen in die befreiten Gebiete zu ermöglichen. Dabei geht es vor allem darum lebensnotwendige Infrastrukturen wiederherzustellen."""Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military actionhttps://www.bundeskanzlerin.de/Content/DE/Rede/2016/07/2016-07-11-rede-merkel-empfangs-corps.htmlhttps://perma.cc/P7Y6-2T63
Germany2015-10-02Interview with Chancellor Angela MerkelInterview response"Q: ""Hundreds of thousands of refugees are fleeing from the Middle East to Europe especially to Germany. You want to fight the roots of this problem does this also mean intervening militarily intervening?
A: As far as Syria is concerned that means first and foremost that necessary to find a political framework for a solution. We have seen again and again that military interventions do not lead to success without an accompanying political concept. For such a political concept we need all regional forces plus the USA and Russia. Germany will contribute as much as possible. In the struggle against the IS to support the Kurdish Peschmerga we delivered weapons into an ongoing conflict for the first time. In addition we are training fighters for the fight against IS in Iraq. We are thus already militarily involved in the grand coalition against the terrorists of the IS."" --PILAC Informal Translation""F: ""Hunderttausende Flüchtlinge stürmen aus dem Nahen Osten nach Europa vor allem nach Deutschland. Sie wollen die Wurzeln dieses Problems bekämpfen. Heißt es auch militärische Interventionen?
A: Was Syrien betrifft heißt es vor allem dass ein politischer Rahmen für eine Lösung gefunden werden muss. Wir haben immer wieder erlebt dass militärische Interventionen ohne flankierendes politisches Konzept nicht zum Erfolg führen. Für ein solches politisches Konzept brauchen wir alle regionalen Kräfte dazu die USA und Russland. Deutschland wird sich im Rahmen seiner Möglichkeiten einbringen. Wir haben im Kampf gegen den IS zur Unterstützung der kurdischen Peschmerga zum ersten Mal Waffen in einen laufenden Konflikt geliefert. Außerdem bilden wir im Irak Kämpfer gegen den IS aus. Wir sind also bereits militärisch an der großen Koalition gegen die Terroristen des IS beteiligt."""Collective self-defenseISILOut of country training and assistance; In-country training and assistancehttps://www.bundeskanzlerin.de/Content/DE/Interview/2015/10/2015-10-02-merkel-interview.htmlhttps://perma.cc/365Z-LGN3
Germany2015-12-02Speech by Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier to the German Bundestag on the debate on the Bundeswehr’s mission against the terrorist organisation ISISPublic Statement"""The terror waged by IS targets open society and all those who want to live in liberty and without state ideological and religious oppression – whether here in Europe in the Middle East in Paris Tunis or in Beirut. It targets Christians and atheists Jews and Muslims. It has fundamental and fanatic dimensions. The more fundamental and all-encompassing this terror seeks to be the more comprehensive and united must be our response. Esteemed colleagues from Paris the French President has asked Europe for support and Europe has almost without exception pledged its support.
The European Union is closing ranks. In France Europe as a whole was affected by the attacks and this is why Europe must offer a response together with France.
When searching for a response it is still the case that there will be no military solution to the conflict in Syria at the end of the day. It goes without saying that we all know that it will at the end of the day be impossible to defeat terrorism by military means alone. Everyone who says this and puts this argument forward is therefore right. But allow me to add that this is not the full story and that we must respond at multiple levels. Of course political negotiations are at the forefront of our efforts to resolve this conflict. Second we need to achieve stability in the region and third yes military means are also required at the present time.
If we do not prevent further parts of Syria from falling under IS control then nothing will remain in Syria that we can pacify and through a political process transform into a different hopefully better future. This is not just my assessment or the assessment of the entire Federal Government but also the way that Americans Russians and regional actors view the situation. Allow me to add that it may be too late for all these thoughts in one year’s time. In one year’s time there may be nothing left and no role to play for an opposition that still exists and is active in Syria. We shouldn’t turn a blind eye to this either. This is why a simple and categorical no to any military confrontation with IS is despite the fact that a political settlement is our priority – which is something I genuinely advocate – not a way to protect Syria and the future of Syria. All those who already know now that they are going to reject this mandate must be clear on this.
I said here last week that the Federal Government will keep its promise of solidarity that we made to France. – We have weighed up our offer – as Ms. von der Leyen has just said – carefully. We are doing what is needed from a military point of view. We are doing what we can and we are doing what we can justify. The Federal Minister of Defence will inform you about the details. The present mandate includes protective measures reconnaissance capabilities and logistical support for the international coalition against IS.
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The mission that we are deciding on this week is not only about fulfilling a promise of solidarity made to France but is also to my mind essential and legitimate under international law. Germany is supporting France Iraq and others in the fight against IS on the basis of the right of collective self-defence as enshrined by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations.
In three resolutions the UN Security Council has established that IS represents a threat to international peace and security. In resolution 2249 which is barely three weeks old the Security Council called on the international community to take all necessary steps to counter this threat following the Paris attacks. Also in the wake of the attacks in Paris France was the first member state of the EU to invoke the mutual assistance clause set out in Article 42 paragraph 7 of the Treaty on European Union or Lisbon Treaty.
Germany will offer military assistance insofar as collective self-defence is provided in support of France also in fulfilment of this EU mutual assistance clause.
The Bundestag’s Research and Documentation Services have if I am not mistaken likewise confirmed the constitutionality and legitimacy under international law of the Bundeswehr’s overseas deployment. This will hopefully help to clarify the open questions discussed here as well as the legal aspects of the debate."" --Foreign Office Official Translation""""Der IS-Terror richtet sich gegen die offene Gesellschaft und gegen alle die frei und ohne staatliche ideologische und religiöse Bedrängnis leben wollen - ob hier in Europa im Mittleren Osten in Paris in Tunis oder in Beirut. Er richtet sich gegen Christen und Atheisten gegen Juden und Muslime. Er hat fundamentale und fanatische Ausmaße und so fundamental und umfassend dieser Terror wirken will so umfassend und geschlossen müssen wir ihm begegnen.
Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen aus Paris der französische Präsident hat Europa um Unterstützung gebeten und Europa hat fast ausnahmslos Unterstützung versprochen. Die Europäische Union rückt zusammen. In Frankreich wurde ganz Europa getroffen und deshalb muss Europa gemeinsam mit Frankreich eine Antwort geben.
Bei der Suche nach der Antwort bleibt richtig: Am Ende wird es keine militärische Lösung für den syrischen Konflikt geben. Natürlich wissen wir alle dass der Terrorismus am Ende nicht allein militärisch besiegt werden kann. Alle die das sagen haben recht. Ich füge hinzu: Das ist aber nicht die ganze Antwort sondern wir müssen auf mehreren Ebenen Antworten geben. An erster Stelle stehen natürlich politische Verhandlungen zur Konfliktlösung. Zweitens brauchen wir eine regionale Stabilisierung und drittens ja sind zurzeit auch noch militärische Mittel notwendig.
Wenn wir nicht verhindern dass sich der IS noch weitere Teile Syriens unter den Nagel reißt dann wird in Syrien nichts übrig bleiben was wir befrieden und durch einen politischen Prozess in eine andere hoffentlich bessere Zukunft überführen können. Das ist nicht allein meine Erkenntnis oder die der gesamten Bundesregierung so sehen es auch Amerikaner Russen und regionale Akteure. Ich füge hinzu: In einem Jahr könnten wir mit all diesen Überlegungen möglicherweise zu spät kommen. In einem Jahr gibt es vielleicht auch für die Opposition in Syrien nichts mehr auszurichten. Auch davor dürfen wir die Augen nicht verschließen.
Deshalb ist ein einfaches und kategorisches Nein zu jeder militärischen Auseinandersetzung mit dem IS trotz der Priorität der politischen Lösung für die ich nun wirklich eintrete eben kein Beitrag zur Sicherung Syriens und der Zukunft Syriens. Das muss sich jeder klarmachen der schon jetzt weiß dass er dieses Mandat ablehnen wird.
Ich habe letzte Woche an dieser Stelle gesagt: Die Bundesregierung steht zum Versprechen der Solidarität das wir Frankreich gegeben haben. Wir haben unser Angebot sorgfältig abgewogen. Wir tun das was militärisch gebraucht wird. Wir tun das was wir können und wir tun das was wir verantworten können.
Die Bundesverteidigungsministerin wird dazu unterrichten: Im vorliegenden Mandat fallen darunter Maßnahmen zum Schutz zur Aufklärung und zur logistischen Unterstützung der internationalen Koalition gegen IS.
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Der Einsatz über den wir in dieser Woche entscheiden ist nicht nur Erfüllung eines Solidaritätsversprechens gegenüber Frankreich. Er ist aus meiner Sicht notwendig. Er ist völkerrechtlich legitimiert. Deutschland unterstützt Frankreich Irak und andere im Kampf gegen IS auf Grundlage des Rechts der kollektiven Selbstverteidigung wie es in Artikel 51 der UN-Charta zum Ausdruck gebracht wird.
In mittlerweile drei Resolutionen hat der VN-Sicherheitsrat festgestellt dass IS weltweit eine Bedrohung für Frieden und Sicherheit ist. In der Resolution 2249 hat der Sicherheitsrat nach den Anschlägen von Paris die Staatengemeinschaft aufgerufen alle notwendigen Maßnahmen gegen diese Bedrohung zu ergreifen. Ebenfalls nach den Anschlägen von Paris hat sich Frankreich als erster Mitgliedstaat der EU auf die Beistandsklausel in Artikel 42 Absatz 7 des EU-Vertrages berufen. Deutschlands militärische Beiträge erfolgen soweit die kollektive Selbstverteidigung zugunsten von Frankreich geleistet wird zusätzlich auch in Erfüllung dieser EU-Beistandsklausel. Der Wissenschaftliche Dienst des Bundestages hat wenn ich es richtig sehe ebenfalls die verfassungs- und völkerrechtliche Legitimität des Auslandseinsatzes der Bundeswehr festgestellt. Das wird hoffentlich zur Klärung der offenen und hier diskutierten Fragen sowie der rechtlichen Aspekte der Debatte beitragen."""Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military action; Foreign Assistance"German: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2015/151202-BM_Bt_SYR.html?nn=342580;
English: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Infoservice/Presse/Reden/2015/151202_ISIS.html?searchArchive=0&searchEngineQueryString=syria+intervention+51&searchIssued=0&searchIssuedAfter=27.11.2013"https://perma.cc/2ZUH-C4TV
Germany2015-12-01Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier in an interview on Germany’s support for the fight against ISIS. Published in the BILD newspaper on 1 December 2015.Interview response"Q: ""Today the Cabinet will decide to openly join the war against ISIS. Why now and not sooner?
A: Questions like that don’t help anyone. War is waged among states and ISIS is certainly not a state. However ISIS is exporting terrorism to Europe. For our friends in Paris the choice of words is an expression of their determination to fight terrorism. We stand shoulder to shoulder with France and have done so not just since the attacks of 13 November. Back in the summer of 2014 we established the alliance against ISIS together with the US our European partners and Arab states. We've been involved militarily from the outset in the form of weapons and training for the Peshmerga – with considerable success. But I remain convinced that terror cannot be defeated with bombs and missiles alone. Ultimately that can only be achieved through political means. That’s why it’s so important that we’ve finally brought all the key international players to the negotiating table in Vienna."" --Foreign Office Official Translation""F: ""Heute beschließt das Kabinett offen in den Krieg gegen ISIS zu ziehen. Warum erst jetzt?
A: Solche Fragen helfen doch nicht weiter. Krieg wird unter Staaten geführt und ISIS ist sicher kein Staat. Aber ISIS exportiert Terrorismus nach Europa. Für unsere Freunde in Paris ist die Wortwahl auch Ausdruck der Entschlossenheit sich dem Terror entgegenzustellen. Wir stehen an der Seite Frankreichs und nicht erst seit den Anschlägen vom 13. November. Schon im Sommer 2014 haben wir mit den USA europäischen Partnern und arabischen Staaten die Allianz gegen ISIS ins Leben gerufen. Von Anfang an waren wir militärisch beteiligt mit Waffen und Ausbildung für die Peschmerga – mit gutem Erfolg. Aber es bleibt meine Überzeugung: Mit Bomben und Raketen allein ist Terror nicht zu besiegen das geht letztlich nur politisch. Deshalb ist es so wichtig dass wir in Wien endlich alle entscheidenden internationalen Akteure an den Verhandlungstisch gebracht haben."""Collective self-defenseISILOut of country training and assistance"German: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/DE/Aussenpolitik/GlobaleFragen/TerrorismusOK/Aktuelles/151201-BM-Bild_node.html
English: http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/EN/Infoservice/Presse/Interview/2015/151201-BM-BILD.html?nn=424096"https://perma.cc/824G-DFAJ
Germany2016-04-14Statement by Germany in Open Debate on “Threats to International Peace and Security Caused by Terrorist Acts”Public Statement"""Mr. President
I would like to thank you for convening this debate which comes at a time of grave concern regarding the scope and severity of the threat posed by violent extremism and terrorism to societies around the globe.
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As illustrated by recent attacks in Turkey Belgium Nigeria Côte d'Ivoire and Pakistan terrorist organizations such as ISIL Al-Qaida and other groups continue to commit atrocities and extreme violations of human rights while spreading destruction and disorder to different communities in various regions.
While the threat level has increased also in Europe terrorism remains highly concentrated as most of its activity occurs in just five countries: Iraq Nigeria Afghanistan Pakistan and Syria.
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It is a truism that the fight against this scourge of mankind cannot be won solely by military means. Nor can we gain the upper hand by exclusively relying on enhanced cooperation of our law-enforcement agencies or enhanced information-sharing between intelligence services.
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Where required the fight against terrorism has to be conducted militarily as is illustrated by the international alliance against ISIL in Iraq and Syria to which Germany lends material and personnel support and is leading the effort to train and equip Kurdish forces in Northern Iraq in their fight against the terrorist organization."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defenseISIL; Other terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://www.new-york-un.diplo.de/Vertretung/newyorkvn/de/__pr/Speeches/2016/20160414-VNSR-offene-debatte.htmlhttps://perma.cc/YRG4-DLYX
Germany2015-03-18Remarks by Federal Foreign Minister Steinmeier on the occasion of the first meeting of the Working Group for Stabilization of the Counter-ISIL-CoalitionPublic Statement"""But also concerning Syria we continue preparing and planning for stabilization. ISIL has grown strong in Syria and there is a risk that success in Iraq may push ISIL back into Syria – where Assad has so far shown little enthusiasm to fight them. We met yesterday with the President of the Syrian Opposition Coalition Khaled Khoja and discussed the situation there. We have some instruments already in place that will help a stabilization effort in Syria – once the conditions will be given."""UnclearISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.new-york-un.diplo.de/Vertretung/newyorkvn/de/__pr/Speeches/2015/20150318-steinmeier-at-first-meeting-of-counter-isil-coalition.html https://perma.cc/EJD6-JGKT
Germany2014-09-19Statement by Foreign Minister Steinmeier on the situation in Iraq in the Security CouncilPublic Statement"""In Syria and Iraq we are witnessing the return of barbarism. We are faced with an enemy who is not only a threat for Iraq or Syria or the Middle East – but a threat for all of us. We need to act!"""Collective self-defenseISIL; Other terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://www.new-york-un.diplo.de/Vertretung/newyorkvn/de/__pr/Speeches/2014/20140919-steinmeier-on-iraq-sc.htmlhttps://perma.cc/R9V6-P638
Germany2014-01-31"50th Munich Security Conference: Opening Statement by Federal President Gauck on ""Germany's Role in the World: Reflections on responsibility norms and alliances"""Public Statement"""Brutal regimes must not be allowed to hide behind the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention. This is where the concept of 'responsibility to protect' comes to bear. This concept transfers to the international community the responsibility to protect the people of a given country from such atrocities when their own government fails to do so. In the very last resort military means can be used after careful consideration and a weighing up of the consequences upon authorisation by the UN Security Council.
I know and like human rights defenders around the world I am pained by the fact that action is not taken everywhere where such intervention would be morally justified and necessary to protect the life and limb of people in danger. This dilemma has recently been highlighted again by events in Syria. And I know that the relationship between legality and legitimacy will continue to be awkward as long as the Security Council is so often divided on these issues.
There will be many reasons why the concept of responsibility to protect rarely results in an intervention. The consequences of such action are frequently difficult or even impossible to calculate and there is no way of determining accurately enough whether the situation in the crisis area will be better after military intervention. Sometimes domestic policy considerations will also militate against action. Whatever the precise circumstances the decision whether to intervene or not will always be a morally difficult one.
The UN General Assembly has in principle recognised the concept of responsibility to protect. However the concept remains contentious; the international debate continues. That’s a good thing since potential abuse of the concept for expansionist or imperialist purposes has to be ruled out. I therefore welcome the fact that the German Government is helping to further develop the concept with a focus on prevention international cooperation and the development of early warning systems."""Other (Responsibility to protect); UNSC authorizationAssad RegimeGeneral military actionhttp://www.new-york-un.diplo.de/Vertretung/newyorkvn/de/__pr/Speeches/2014/20140131-gauck-opening-speech-munich-security-conference.htmlhttps://perma.cc/F77B-PJW5
Germany2015-11-26"Joint statement on support in the anti-terrorist struggle
Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen"Public Statement"""Today the government has decided on difficult but important and necessary steps. We have done so together with the conviction to be firmly on the side of France. France is deeply affected by the inhuman horrendous attacks of the IS but we all know that this human despising raging can also be directed against us and to other societies at any time.
France has asked us for help and we discussed today how we can meet this request for help. We can mainly provide three components: protection important information and logistics. Protection is above all protection for the aircraft carrier 'Charles de Gaulle' from which the airstrikes are flown by France. We can contribute to its protection with a frigate.
In Syria we urgently need a clear picture of the situation that means reconaissance. In that regard we can provide a German-French satellite which very precisely represents wide areas and at the same time reconnaissance aircraft tornadoes which are also able to deliver pictures but much faster within a shorter time frame. This is important not only for the fight against the IS in order to know where its troops are deployed and how it operates but it is also important to protect the population to protect civilian infrastructure - also a task that we share.
And thirdly we can help with logistics namely by air refueling which is urgently necessary. We have tankers that are able to reful the French jets and would like to put them at France's disposal.
Yes it is true that we all know that military action alone can not pacify a conflict and all the more important is the political process that is currently taking place around Syria. It is important to remove the ideological basis from the terrorist regime of the IS but we also need military means to stop the IS defeat it to then be able to start the reconstruction work and reconciliation efforts of the various groups of the country."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Die Regierung hat heute schwere aber wichtige und notwendige Schritte beschlossen. Wir haben dies gemeinsam getan in dem Bewusstsein dass wir fest an der Seite Frankreichs stehen. Frankreich ist ins Mark getroffen durch die menschenverachtenden grauenhaften Anschläge des IS aber wir wissen alle dass dieses menschenverachtende Wüten jederzeit auch uns gelten kann und anderen Gesellschaften.
Frankreich hat uns um Hilfe gebeten und wir haben heute besprochen wie wir dieser Bitte um Hilfe entsprechen können. Wir können vor allem drei Komponenten zur Verfügung stellen: Schutz wichtige Aufklärung und Logistik. Schutz das ist vor allem Schutz für den Flugzeugträger ""Charles de Gaulle"" von dem aus die Luftschläge durch Frankreich geflogen werden. Wir können mit einer Fregatte zu seinem Schutz beitragen.
In Syrien selber ist dringend notwendig ein klares Lagebild das heißt Aufklärung. Hier können wir zur Verfügung stellen einen deutsch-französischen Satelliten der sehr präzise den weiten Raum darstellt und gleichzeitig Aufklärungsflugzeuge Tornados die in der Lage sind sehr viel schneller zeitnaher auch Bilder zu liefern. Dies ist wichtig nicht nur für den Kampf gegen den IS um zu wissen wo er steht und wie er operiert sondern es ist auch wichtig zum Schutz der Bevölkerung für zivile Infrastruktur - auch eine Aufgabe die wir gemeinsam teilen.
Und wir können drittens in der Logistik helfen nämlich durch Luftbetankung die dringend notwendig ist. Wir haben Tankflugzeuge die in der Lage sind die französischen Jets zu betanken und würden die auch gern Frankreich zur Verfügung stellen.
Ja es stimmt dass wir alle wissen dass Militär allein einen Konflikt nicht befrieden kann und umso wichtiger ist der politische Prozess der zur Zeit um Syrien herum läuft. Es ist wichtig die ideologische Grundlage dem Terrorregime des IS zu entziehen aber wir brauchen auch militärische Mittel um den IS zu stoppen ihn zu besiegen um dann in die Aufbauarbeit und die Versöhnung für die verschiedenen Gruppen des Landes einsteigen zu können."""Collective self-defenseUnclearForeign Assistancehttps://www.bmvg.de/portal/a/bmvg/!ut/p/c4/NYvBCsIwEET_aLcBweKtoRcvHgSp9SJps4SFJinrtl78eJNDZ-DB8Bh8YWlyOwennJNb8InjzJfpC1PcA0RO_FES3iJ4kvexQchTwqHePcGcE2mlUlIuDOI0C6xZdKlmEykG2OPYmN42pjlift3pZofHuW37q73jGmP3B7609-c!/https://perma.cc/59DH-G5SK
Germany2015-11-26"Joint statement on support in the anti-terrorist struggle
Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier"Public Statement"""For the second time this year France has been haunted by terrible attacks. More than 130 people have fallen victim to these attackss in Paris on November 13. We do not only feel sympathy but have also expressed our solidarity and in his coversation with the Chancellor the French president asked yesterday for support in the fight against terrorism.
We all know that terrorism can in the end not be militarily defeated. That is why we are focusing on a political process which has recently had an encouraring start in Vienna. But we will also not be able to deal with Al-Nusra and other terrorist groups in Syria without a confrontation without a military confrontation. That is why we agreed to carefully examine the request for assistance.
We know of the existing expectations especially in the field of reconnaissance and flight logistics. Mrs. von der Leyen will explain this in just a moment. We have promised support and I believe it would not be a good gesture from the German side if we did not preserve credibility. And credibility means that we actually make available what we can and what we can be politically responsible for - based on applicable law and international law.
Just a few days ago the Security Council of the United Nations expressed that IS and Al-Nusra are a worldwide threat to peace and security has called to restrain the activities of ISIS and Al Nusra with the options and means we have and to retake the territories in which ISIS has spread. To this extent we see our support for France as grounded on a sound legal bases under German and International Law."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Zum zweiten Mal in diesem Jahr ist Frankreich heimgesucht worden von furchtbaren Attentaten. Mehr als 130 Menschen sind diesen Attentaten am 13. November in Paris zum Opfer gefallen. Wir haben nicht nur Mitgefühl wir haben auch Solidarität zum Ausdruck gebracht und der französische Präsident hat gestern in seinem Gespräch mit der Bundeskanzlerin um Unterstützung gebeten im Kampf gegen Terrorismus.
Wir alle wissen Terrorismus wird sich am Ende nicht allein militärisch besiegen lassen. Deshalb setzen wir auf einen politischen Prozess der zuletzt in Wien ermutigend begonnen hat. Aber wir werden auch nicht ohne eine Auseinandersetzung ohne eine militärische Auseinandersetzung mit IS mit Al-Nusra und anderen terroristischen Gruppierungen in Syrien auskommen. Deshalb haben wir zugesagt die Unterstützungsbitte sorgfältig zu prüfen.
Wir wissen dass es Erwartungen gibt insbesondere im Bereich Aufklärung und Fluglogistik. Frau Kollegin von der Leyen wird das gleich erläutern. Wir haben Unterstützung zugesagt und ich glaube es wäre keine gute Geste von der deutschen Seite wenn wir nicht auch Glaubwürdigkeit bewahren würden. Und Glaubwürdigkeit heißt dass wir das was wir können und was wir politisch verantworten können auch tatsächlich zur Verfügung stellen - zur Verfügung stellen auf Grundlage geltenden Rechts und Völkerrechts.
Der Sicherheitsrat der Vereinten Nationen hat erst vor wenigen Tagen zum Ausdruck gebracht dass IS und Al-Nusra eine Bedrohung für Frieden und Sicherheit weltweit sind hat dazu aufgerufen mit den Möglichkeiten und Mitteln die wir haben die Aktivitäten von ISIS und Al Nusra einzuschränken die Territorien in denen ISIS sich breitgemacht hat möglichst zurückzudrängen. Insofern sehen wir uns mit unseren Möglichkeiten die wir Frankreich zur Unterstützung bereitstellen und bereitstellen können auf sicherem rechtlichem und völkerrechtlichem Boden."""Collective self-defenseOther terrorist groups; ISILForeign Assistancehttps://www.bmvg.de/portal/a/bmvg/!ut/p/c4/NYvBCsIwEET_aLcBweKtoRcvHgSp9SJps4SFJinrtl78eJNDZ-DB8Bh8YWlyOwennJNb8InjzJfpC1PcA0RO_FES3iJ4kvexQchTwqHePcGcE2mlUlIuDOI0C6xZdKlmEykG2OPYmN42pjlift3pZofHuW37q73jGmP3B7609-c!/https://perma.cc/T5VK-LE8V
Germany2015-12-01Interview with Ministry of Defense Ursula von der LeyenInterview response"DLF: ""Ms von der Leyen can the necessary solidarity with France sufficiently justify sending more than 1000 soldiers into the action and thus ultimately endanger their lives?
von der Leyen: Well it is the joint struggle against the IS which is the basis which by the way also gives us a safe international legal basis and where we have been already involved for over a year. We are part of the alliance against terror. We started to take responsibility in Northen Iraq more than a year ago having equipped the Peschmerga with weapons and trained them - a mission which is successful as the Peschmerga did not only managed to stop the IS but also to repulse it to recapture territories.
...
DLF: If I may recall that the reasoning or the argumentation has been different so far would it be fair to say that after the Paris attacks Germany does not go to war but is drawn into it through the argument and the necessity act in solidarity with France?
von der Leyen: The argument of solidarity is also of importance only: It is a very conscious active step that we undertake for there is one thing the Paris attacks have once again made very clear namely that terror comes to us if we do not proceed more resolutely and faster against the IS and therefore also this consistent support with several elements in Syria itself now."" --PILAC Informal Translation""DLF: ""Frau von der Leyen reicht die notwendige Solidarität mit Frankreich als Begründung dafür aus um mehr als 1.000 Soldaten in den Einsatz zu schicken und damit ja auch in letzter Konsequenz ihr Leben in Gefahr zu bringen?
von der Leyen: Nun es ist der gemeinsame Kampf gegen den IS der die Grundlage ist der uns übrigens auch die sichere völkerrechtliche Grundlage gibt und wo wir ja bereits seit über einem Jahr beteiligt sind. Wir sind Teil der Allianz gegen den Terror. Wir haben vor mehr als einem Jahr begonnen im Nordirak Verantwortung zu übernehmen indem wir die Peschmerga ausgerüstet haben mit Waffen und ausgebildet haben - übrigens ein Einsatz der erfolgreich ist denn den Peschmerga ist es gelungen den IS nicht nur zu stoppen sondern ihn zurückzuschlagen Gebiete zurückzuerobern.
...
DLF: Wenn ich noch mal daran erinnern darf dass die Begründung oder die Argumentation bisher anders war ist es dann fair zu sagen dass nach den Anschlägen von Paris Deutschland nicht in den Krieg zieht sondern hineingezogen wird mit dem Argument und mit der Notwendigkeit solidarisch zu sein mit Frankreich?
von der Leyen: Das Argument der Solidarität steht auch im Vordergrund. Nur: Es ist ein sehr bewusster aktiver Schritt den wir tun. Denn eines haben die Anschläge von Paris noch mal sehr deutlich gemacht nämlich dass der Terror zu uns kommt wenn wir nicht entschlossener und schneller gegen den IS vorgehen und deshalb auch diese konsequente Unterstützung jetzt mit mehreren Elementen in Syrien selber."""Collective self-defenseISILIn country training and assistancehttps://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Interview/2015/12/2015-12-01-vdleyen-dlf.htmlhttps://perma.cc/4H4Y-JSHG
Germany2016-07-07Declaration of the Federal Chancellor MerkelPublic statement"""Our world today is a world in unrest. The fanatical Islamic terrorism of the IS also threatens us in Europe. Above all it brings endless suffering to the people in the region. The latest devastating attacks in Baghdad and also the attack in Dhaka show once again which contempt for mankind this terrorism inheres.
The terrorist acts in Brussels in Paris and repeatedly in Istanbul remind us to engage in the debate about terrorism in a decisive and perspicacious manner. Unfortunately our current guest on distinguished visitors' gallery the Pakistani parliament president knows what terror terrorism can cause. That means in concret terms: it is a enormous task to contribute to peace stability and prosperity in the crisis regions of the Near and Middle East as well as North Africa and sub-Saharan Africa. It is a task to which NATO can also contribute. But it is not a task that is to be solved by NATO alone or by military means only."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Unsere Welt heute ist eine Welt in Unruhe. Der fanatische islamistische Terrorismus des IS bedroht auch uns in Europa. Vor allem aber bringt er unendliches Leid über die Menschen in der Region. Die jüngsten verheerenden Anschläge in Bagdad und auch der Anschlag in Dhaka zeigen einmal mehr welche Menschenverachtung diesem Terrorismus innewohnt.
Auch die Terrorakte in Brüssel in Paris und wiederholt in Istanbul mahnen uns die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Terrorismus ebenso entschieden wie klug zu führen. Leider weiß auch unser heutiger Gast auf der Ehrentribüne der pakistanische Parlamentspräsident was Terrorismus für Schrecknisse anrichten kann. Das heißt ganz konkret: Es ist eine gewaltige Aufgabe zu Frieden Stabilität und Prosperität in den Krisenregionen des Nahen und Mittleren Ostens sowie Nordafrikas und Subsahara-Afrikas beizutragen. Es ist eine Aufgabe zu der auch die NATO ihren Beitrag leisten kann. Aber es ist keine Aufgabe die von der NATO allein oder die nur mit militärischen Mitteln zu lösen ist."""Collective self-defenseISIL; Other terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttps://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/Regierungserklaerung/2016/2016-07-07-regierungserklaerung.htmlhttps://perma.cc/NB2B-ANU5
Germany; Turkey; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Israel; United States2014-09-11Statement by German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier; Turkish government official; Foreign Minister Philip Hammond; Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu; President Barack Obama Public Statement"""Germany's Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier questioned whether Obama’s plan of airstrikes and equipping moderate Syrian rebels was adequate. ""We haven’t been asked nor will we do it” he said of the airstrikes. ""We need to be honest with ourselves in the current situation we don't yet have a final blanket strategy which guarantees that we'll be successful against ISIS and similar groups."
Turkey a crucial U.S. ally in the Middle East that borders Syria said it won’t allow the U.S.-led coalition to launch strikes in Syria from its air bases. It also won't participate in any combat operations. ""Turkey will not be involved in any armed operation but will entirely concentrate on humanitarian operations"" an unnamed Turkish government official told Agence France-Press.
There was initial confusion after British Foreign Secretary Philip Hammond said earlier on Thursday the U.K. “will not be taking part of any airstrikes in Syria” according to AFP. A spokesman for British Prime Minister David Cameron said Hammond meant to say that the U.K. would not be bombing Syrian President Bashar Assad the Guardian reported. Obama’s plan does not include any strikes against the Syrian leader.
Israel has emerged as the strongest proponent of the plan. “Israel fully supports Obama’s call for a united action against ISIS” Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said during a conference at the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism in Israel according to the Jerusalem Post.
Obama outlined his airstrike stragety for ISIS in a sweeping speech addressed to the nation Wednesday night. ""This counterterrorism campaign will be waged through a steady relentless effort to take out ISIL wherever they exist using our air power and our support for partner forces on the ground"" he said."""UnclearISILGeneral military action; Airstrikeshttp://www.ibtimes.com/obama-isis-speech-reaction-germany-turkey-wont-join-airstrikes-syria-uk-wont-rule-them-out-1685828https://perma.cc/Q2UF-CZBB
Indonesia; South Africa; Russia2013-09-06Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa; South African President Jacob Zuma; Russian President Vladimir PutinPublic Statement"""Indonesia has been calling on the international community to refrain from extrajudicial justice on Syria and to wait until UN investigators publish the results of their work.
“Indonesia’s stance is clear. President Yudhoyono has said that while affirming that the use of chemical weapons against innocent civilians cannot be accepted we need to ensure who actually carried out the attacks. In this sense we should wait for the UN’s inspection team to announce the result of its investigation” Indonesian Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa said in a statement published on President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s official website.
“International responses should not lead to more and worse humanitarian problems. The misery of the Syrian people has been too long and we need to ensure there is no military approach used but instead peaceful diplomatic measures must be utilized to settle the problems” Natalegawa added.
...
South African President Jacob Zuma slammed the idea of a military intervention in Syria on the eve of the summit saying that one cannot “remain silent when one country is being bombed to ashes before our eyes.”
Zuma stressed that the UN is “the only authority that can intervene militarily in any country” in his speech earlier this week.
“We don’t want the world to be run by individuals but a collective in the form of the UN. I don't know if people who are questioning our position on Syria have an alternative” Zuma said.
...
President Putin on Friday quoted his South African counterpart as saying that the world’s smaller countries feel “increasingly vulnerable and insecure” with the notion that a more powerful nation can “at any time and at its own discretion use force against them.”
In this regard a military strike outside of a UN Security Council resolution would set a dangerous precedent Putin warned.
“The use of force on a sovereign state is only possible if it is done for self-defense – and as we know Syria is not attacking the US – or under a decision made by the UN Security Council. As one participant in our discussion said those who act otherwise put themselves outside of law” Putin said."""Self-defense; UNSC resolutionAssad regimeGeneral military actionshttps://www.rt.com/news/g20-against-syria-strike-527/https://perma.cc/4HXJ-J399
Iran2014-09-23Meeting of President Rouhani with directors of US media in New YorkPublic Statement“Bombardment by one or several countries or even one coalition is meaningless without legal basis and can be considered as [an act of] aggression.”UnclearOther terrorist groupsAirstrikeshttp://www.president.ir/en/81134https://perma.cc/A9PB-4FQT
Iran2015-12-13Statement by Iranian Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Hossein Jaberi AnsariPublic Statement"“""Based on the request of the Syrian government (Iran’s) military advisory assistance has been given to the country and will be continued” Jaberi Ansari said at his first press conference in Tehran on Sunday.
He further denied claims about the Islamic Republic’s military presence in Syria saying “We have received no request (from Syria) for military presence but in case of a request it will be considered within the framework of the principles and policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran.”
Earlier on Sunday Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister for Arab and African Affairs Hossein Amir Abdollahian vehemently denied claims that Iran is withdrawing its military advisers from Syria and said “Iranian military advisers are continuing their counterterrorism measures.”"""Consent of host stateOther terrorist groupsForeign assistance; In-country training and assistancehttp://www.tasnimnews.com/en/news/2015/12/14/942185/iran-to-continue-advisory-assistance-to-syria-spokesmanhttps://perma.cc/K67R-R52U
Iran2016-03-13Statement by President RouhaniPublic Statement"""The issue is not whether they are based in Iraq Syria or other countries. We will not tolerate attempts by terrorists to assault the holy shrines of the Household [of Prophet Muhammad] and will stand against them.
I have repeatedly said that the shrines constitute a red line for us."""Collective self-defense (of a religious nature)Other terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://eaworldview.com/2016/03/iran-daily-rouhani-backs-military-intervention-in-syria-and-iraq/https://perma.cc/35FG-KJLQ
Iran2016-04-09Statement by Iranian Deputy Chief of Staff of Armed Forces Brigadier General Massoud JazzayeriPublic Statement"“""Different sections of the (Iranian) Armed Forces are present in the region as advisors and it is nothing new” Jazzayeri told reporters in Tehran on Saturday in response to a question on the dispatch of commandos to Syria.
...
“At some point we might decide to use our commandos and snipers as military advisers in Iraq and Syria” he said."""N/AUnclearIn-country training and logistical supporthttp://theiranproject.com/blog/2016/04/09/deputy-chief-of-staff-reiterates-irans-military-advisory-role-in-syria/https://perma.cc/4FJB-L5AC
Iran; Syria2015-10-15"Statement by the Head of the National Security and Foreign Policy Committee of Iran’s parliament Alaeddin Boroujerdi; Information Minister Omran az-Zoubi"Public Statement"""Boroujerdi told a news conference in Damascus that Iran was ready to render military assistance to Syria. ""Iran’s military aid will be provided as soon as Tehran receives a request from the Syrian government. We are going to announce it immediately"" the Iranian deputy said.
...
The Iranian deputy stressed the importance of the four-sided coordination of efforts by Russia Iran Iraq and Syria in fighting terrorism.
For his part Syrian Information Minister Omran az-Zoubi on Wednesday refuted some Western and Arab media reports about the presence of Iranian and Russian ground forces in Syria.
"As for Iran it has only sent military advisers to Syria. There are no Russian land troops on the Syrian soil"" Omran az-Zoubi said in an interview with the Al Maydeen pan-Arabic satellite TV channel."""Consent of host stateOther terrorist groups"General military action; In-country training and logistical support
http://tass.ru/en/world/829227https://perma.cc/XP68-KHS4
Iraq2014-06-25Letter from the Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""On 8 June 2014 with encouragement from several actors the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) an entity that is included in the international list of terrorist organizations took control of the ancient city of Mosul the capital of Ninawa governorate. It then pushed south towards towns and villages where Iraqis had exercised their democratic right to vote.
ISIL has since been terrorizing citizens carrying out mass executions persecuting minorities and women and destroying mosques shrines and churches.
This group now threatens several governorates including Baghdad thanks to external support and the influx of thousands of foreign terrorists of various nationalities from across the border in Syria.
In other parts of our country particularly the western governorate of Anbar
ISIL is carrying out organized military operations across the Syrian border and controls a number of border crossings.
The threat of ISIL is not new to us. Iraq has been subjected to terrorist attacks for nearly a decade by Al-Qaida which has renamed itself ISIL. The situation has become more serious over the past two years as ISIL has repeatedly launched attacks against Iraqi territory from eastern Syria. Hundreds of foreign suicide bombers have streamed into Iraq to murder its citizens in their markets mosques churches playgrounds and schools.
We have previously requested the assistance of the international community.
While we are grateful for what has been done to date it has not been enough. We therefore call on the United Nations and the international community to recognize the serious threat our country and the international order are facing. These international terrorist groups seek to eliminate borders exacerbate violence and fan the flames of civil war. On the other hand the Iraqi Government is seeking to avoid falling into a cycle of violence. To that end we need your support in order to defeat ISIL and protect our territory and people. In particular we call on Member States to assist us by providing military training advanced technology and the weapons required to respond to the situation with a view to denying terrorists staging areas and safe havens.
We should like you to understand that the need is urgent particularly at our western borders which have become a staging ground and a magnet for terrorists from around the world.
...
At this critical juncture we are facing a serious threat from international terrorist organizations. We therefore request urgent assistance from the international community. This assistance should be provided in accordance with those bilateral and multilateral agreements that were approved by the Iraqi Government through its constitutional institutions. It must also be given with full respect for the principle of national sovereignty and the Iraqi Constitution and in accordance with Security Council resolution 1770 (2007) which gives Iraq the right to resort to the United Nations as it deems appropriate for the country its interests and sovereignty and in a manner that does not undermine its sovereignty.
Lastly we call on all Member States to act urgently to cut off all recruitment assistance and the vast amounts of financial media and other forms of support that are being given to ISIL."""Collective self-defenseUnclearUnclearhttp://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2014/440 https://perma.cc/GB4Z-6TH6
Iraq2014-09-20Letter from the Permanent Representative of Iraq to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""I should like to reaffirm the substance of the letter dated 25 June 2014 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the President of the Security Council (S/2014/440 annex) in which the international community was requested to support the effort to eradicate the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and restore stability to our country.
On 15 September 2014 at the Paris conference the international community attested to the fact that ISIL represents a threat to Iraq. We welcome the commitment that was made by 26 States to provide the new Iraqi Government with all necessary support in its war against ISIL including appropriate military assistance through the provision of air cover in coordination with the Iraqi armed forces and in accordance with international law without endangering the safety of civilians ensuring that populated areas are not struck and respecting Iraq’s sovereignty.
Iraq is grateful for the military assistance it is receiving including the assistance provided by the United States of America in response to Iraq’s specific requests. Iraq and the United States have entered into a Strategic Framework Agreement and that Agreement will help to make such assistance more effective and enable us to make great advances in our war against ISIL. Although Iraq is in great need of the assistance of its friends in combatting this evil terrorism it nonetheless attaches great importance to preserving its sovereignty and its ability to take decisions independently both of which must be honoured in all circumstances.
As we noted in our earlier letter ISIL has established a safe haven outside Iraq’s borders that is a direct threat to the security of our people and territory. By establishing this safe haven ISIL has secured for itself the ability to train for plan finance and carry out terrorist operations across our borders. The presence of this safe haven has made our borders impossible to defend and exposed our citizens to the threat of terrorist attacks.
It is for these reasons that we in accordance with international law and the relevant bilateral and multilateral agreements and with due regard for complete national sovereignty and the Constitution have requested the United States of America to lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and military strongholds with our express consent. The aim of such strikes is to end the constant threat to Iraq protect Iraq’s citizens and ultimately arm Iraqi forces and enable them to regain control of Iraq’s borders.
We are grateful for the international community’s support and believe that the provision of additional assistance for the specific purpose of targeting ISIL will further help the Iraqi people and the security forces to turn the tide in the struggle against the terrorists and thereby restore security and stability in our territory.
Doing so will benefit the region and the entire world from which ISIL must be
completely eradicated."""Host state consent; Collective self-defense; Unwilling/unableISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2014_691.pdfhttps://perma.cc/592Z-MNVJ
Islamic Military Alliance to Fight Terrorism2015-12-15Joint statementFormal written correspondence"""Committed to the provisions contained in the United Nations' Charter the Charter of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and other international conventions aimed at the eradication of terrorism
Affirming the right of states to self-defense in accordance with the purposes and principles of international law and the Charter of the United Nations and on the basis of the provisions of the OIC Convention on Combating Terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and the elimination of its objectives and its causes
...
The countries whose names are listed in this statement have decided to form a military alliance to fight against terrorism led by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ... The countries participating in the alliance along with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are: Jordan United Arab Emirates Pakistan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Turkey Chad Togo Tunisia Djibouti Senegal Sudan Sierra Leone Somalia Gabon Guinea Palestine Comoros Qatar Cote d'Ivoire Kuwait Lebanon Libya Maldives Mali Malaysia Egypt Morocco Mauritania Niger Nigeria Yemen.
More than ten other Islamic countries have expressed their support for this alliance and will take the necessary measures in this regard including Indonesia."""Collective self-defenseOther terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://embassies.mofa.gov.sa/sites/usa/EN/PublicAffairs/Statements/Pages/Joint-Statement-on-the-Formation-of-the-Islamic-Military-Alliance.aspxhttps://perma.cc/2D49-6ZHM
Israel2015-12-01President Benjamin NetanyahuPublic Statement"“""We operate in Syria from time to time in order to prevent a front there [from being] created against us and to prevent transfers of weapons especially from Syria to Lebanon” the latter country being home to the Hezbollah terrorist group Netanyahu said at the 8th annual Galilee Conference in Acre."""Individual self-defense"Assad regime ISIL"General military actionhttp://www.jns.org/news-briefs/2015/12/1/israel-has-active-presence-in-syria-netanyahu-confirms#.Vl3ib3arTIU= https://perma.cc/9HF4-QN9T
Jordan2013-08-28Spokesman and Information Minister Mohammad MomaniPublic Statement"""""Jordan will not be a launching pad for any military action against Syria"" said spokesman Mohammad Momani who is also the country's information minister.
He said Jordan prefers a ""diplomatic solution to the Syrian crisis"" and called on the international community to ""consolidate efforts in that regard."""""N/AN/AN/Ahttp://www.cbsnews.com/news/jordan-no-attacks-on-syria-from-our-soil/https://perma.cc/ZF6T-54RR
Jordan2015-02-08Head of Jordanian Air Force General Mansour al-Jbour; Interior Minister Hussein al-MajaliPublic Statement"""""We achieved what we aimed at. We destroyed logistics centres arms depots and targeted hideouts of their fighters"" General Mansour al-Jbour the head of the Jordanian airf orce said on Sunday.
Jbour said that 20 percent of the total sorties against the armed group made by the US-led coalition had been conducted by Jordan.
The sorties have led to the ""degrading"" of nearly 20 percent of the group's capabilities he said.
"We are determined to wipe them from the face of the Earth."
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In comments published on Saturday Hussein al-Majali Jordan's interior minister told the state-run al-Rai newspaper that his country would go after ISIL fighters ""wherever they are."""""N/AISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2015/02/jordan-bombed-isil-56-times-days-150208133049169.htmlhttps://perma.cc/368V-WK3H
Jordan2011-11-29"Statements to the press by Federal Chancellor Angela Merkel and the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan King Abdullah II Ibn Al-Hussein"Public Statement"""We in Jordan are absolutely not of the opinion that military interventions are appropriate in Syria."" --PILAC Informal Translation""König Abdullah die Ausschrift des fremdsprachlichen Teils erfolgte anhand der Simultanübersetzung: ""Wir in Jordanien sind keineswegs der Ansicht dass militärische Interventionen in Syrien angebracht sind."""N/AN/AGeneral military actionhttps://www.bundeskanzlerin.de/ContentArchiv/DE/Archiv17/Mitschrift/Pressekonferenzen/2011/11/2011-11-29-merkel-koenig-jordanien.htmlhttps://perma.cc/HU3W-A7ER
Netherlands2014-09-24"Letter of the Dutch Government to Parliament 'Fight against International Terrorism'"Formal written correspondence"""[There is] currently no consensus on the question whether there is a legal basis under international law for military action in Syria … The Cabinet expresses its understanding for the efforts of the United States. This air campaign is conducted in cooperation with a number of countries in the region but does not entail any cooperation with the Syrian regime ... The United States...relies on the right of collective self-defence ... The exercise of this right is subject to strict requirements especially where an (imminent) armed attack emanates from an armed group such as ISIS. whether Syria is able or willing to tackle such attack is decisive in such case. At this moment it cannot be ascertained whether or not self-defence provides an international legal basis. The Dutch troop deployment is therefore limited to Iraq."" --PILAC Unofficial Translation"Collective self-defense; Consent of host stateISILAirstrikeshttps://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/kst-27925-506.htmlhttps://perma.cc/LG4F-4C7F
Netherlands2014-12-15"Letter of the Dutch Government to Parliament 'Fight against International Terrorism'""""A fact-finding mission (FFM) of the Foreign Affairs and Defense Ministries last week identified the appropriateness risks and opportunities for the provision of non-armed support to moderate armed groups both north and south of Syria. The Netherlands will develop options for delivering a contribution other than the arms to groups that fall under the banner of ""Free Syrian Army"". These are moderate inclusive groups that see themselves as part of a future Syrian army and with the end of a political transition in mind but now they are struggling against the regime in Damascus and against jihadist groups like ISIS and Jabhat al Nusra. The further support of these groups will also lead to support their continued ability to operate effectively and to help ensure the moderate opposition is not further marginalized. The moderate groups should be given an opportunity so that they can hold on to the locals and deter those locals from seeking self-protection by extremist groups. The Netherlands will work closely on the issue with like-minded partners such as the US and UK.
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In the short term the military strategy of the coalition is to stop the advance of ISIS as well as to support the Iraqi army the Peshmerga and the moderate Syrian opposition to break the military power of ISIS."" --PILAC Unofficial Translation""""Een factfinding -missie (FFM) van Buitenlandse Zaken en Defensie heeft vorige week de wenselijkheid kansen en risico's in kaart gebracht voor het verlenen van niet-gewapende steun aan gematigde gewapende groepen zowel in het noorden als in het zuiden van Syrië. Nederland zal opties uitwerken voor het leveren van een bijdrage niet zijnde wapens aan groepen die onder de banier van het «Vrije Syrische Leger» vallen. Dit zijn gematigde inclusieve groepen die zichzelf als onderdeel zien van een toekomstig Syrisch leger en uiteindelijk een politieke transitie voor ogen hebben maar nu strijden tegen het regime in Damascus en tegen jihadistische groeperingen als ISIS en Jabhat al Nusra. Het verder ondersteunen van deze groepen zal er mede toe leiden dat zij effectief kunnen blijven opereren en de gematigde oppositie niet verder wordt gemarginaliseerd. De gematigde groepen moet perspectief worden geboden zodat zij de lokale bevolking aan zich kunnen binden en zij ervan worden weerhouden zich uit zelfbescherming aan te sluiten bij extremistische groeperingen. Nederland zal op dit terrein nauw optrekken met gelijkgezinde partners als de VS en het VK.
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Op korte termijn richt de militaire strategie van de coalitie zich op het stoppen van de opmars van ISIS evenals het ondersteunen van het Iraakse leger de Peshmerga en de gematigde Syrische oppositie teneinde de militaire kracht van ISIS te breken."""Collective self-defenseISILForeign Assistancehttps://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/dossier/27925/kst-27925-526?resultIndex=74&sorttype=1&sortorder=4https://perma.cc/9KZ2-K8JB
Netherlands2015-06-26Letter from the Foreign Minister to the ParliamentFormal written correspondence"""According to the government it can now with sufficient certainty be concluded that there is an international law basis (""legal mandate"") for the use of force against ISIS in Syria. This basis consists of the right to collective self-defense as enshrined in Article 51 of the UN Charter for the purpose of defending Iraq against armed attacks by ISIS from Syria to Iraq."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Volgens het kabinet kan inmiddels met voldoende stelligheid worden geconcludeerd dat sprake is van een volkenrechtelijke grond (“volkenrechtelijk mandaat”) voor het gebruik van geweld tegen ISIS in Syrië. Deze grond wordt gevormd door het recht op collectieve zelfverdediging zoals verankerd in artikel 51 VN Handvest ten behoeve van de verdediging van Irak tegen gewapende aanvallen door ISIS vanuit Syrië op Irak."""Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military actionhttps://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2015/06/26/kamerbrief-inzake-nader-advies-extern-volkenrechtelijke-adviseur-geweldgebruik-tegen-isis-in-syriehttps://perma.cc/NSQ4-EJKT
Norway2016-05-02Statement by Prime Minister Erna Solberg; Defense Minister Ine Eriksen Søreide; Foreign Minister Børge BrendeFormal written correspondence"""ISIL has used extreme violence to take control of areas in Syria and Iraq. Armed conflict and ISIL’s brutal campaign of violence have forced people to flee their homes in fear and desperation. ISIL poses a threat far beyond the region. Europe is also being subjected to acts of terrorism and violence as we have seen in Paris Brussels and Turkey.
‘ISIL’s ideology and brutal actions have resulted in the deaths of a great many civilians and have forced many more people to flee. ISIL has brought violence and terror to Europe and has radicalised young people and recruited them as foreign terrorist fighters. The international community must stand united in fighting ISIL’s ideology and actions and use a range of different tools. We are now stepping up Norway’s efforts by increasing our contribution to the international coalition against ISIL both by providing a new military contribution and by strengthening our civilian efforts’ said Ms Solberg.
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This operation is such that the Norwegian forces would have a mandate to train advise and provide operational support from Syrian territory if the concept of operations calls for this. If the concept of operations is expanded and the situation requires the provision of training and support on Syrian territory the Government will ask the Storting [Parliament] to consider this as a separate matter.
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UN Security Council resolution 2249 called on all UN member states to consider the possibility of strengthening their efforts in the fight against ISIL in Iraq and Syria. This resolution treats Iraq and Syria as one area when it comes to the extent of ISIL’s presence and efforts to fight ISIL. On behalf of the coalition the US and France have requested that Norway steps up its military and civilian efforts.
Frankrike har på vegne av koalisjonen anmodet Norge om å styrke vår militære og sivile innsats.
– ISIL must be fought in both Syria and Iraq. The collective self-defence of Iraq provides a legal basis under international law for carrying out this fight in Syria too. Security Council resolution 2249 supports this’ said Minister of Foreign Affairs Børge Brende.
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The Government has decided to make a new military contribution to the international coalition’s operation. The contingent of around 60 soldiers will provide training advice and operational support to local Syrian groups that are fighting against ISIL. Norway’s contribution will include personnel from the Norwegian special forces. The Norwegian troops will be based in Jordan.
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The reason we are taking part in the coalition is precisely to combat ISIL and thus reduce the risk of terrorist attacks on Norwegian and European soil.""""""ISIL har inntatt områder i Syria og Irak med ekstrem vold. Væpnet konflikt og ISILs brutale fremferd har drevet folk til å forlate sine hjem i frykt og fortvilelse. ISIL er en trussel langt utover regionen. Europa utsettes også for terror og vold slik vi har sett i Paris Brussel og Tyrkia.
– ISILs brutale holdninger og handlinger har tatt livet av mange sivile og drevet enda flere på flukt. De har rammet Europa med vold og terror og unge mennesker har blitt radikalisert og vervet som fremmedkrigere. Holdningene og handlingene må bekjempes av en samlet verden og med en rekke ulike virkemidler. Vi styrker nå den norske innsatsen ved å øke vårt bidrag til koalisjonen mot ISIL både gjennom et nytt militært bidrag og med å forsterke den sivile innsatsen sier statsministeren.
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Det ligger i denne operasjonen at de norske styrkene har mandat til å kunne trene rådgi og gi operativ støtte fra syrisk territorium dersom operasjonskonseptet krever det. Hvis operasjonskonseptet utvikles og situasjonen tilsier trening og støtte på syrisk territorium vil regjeringen konsultere Stortinget særskilt om dette.
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FNs sikkerhetsrådsresolusjon 2249 oppfordret alle medlemsland til å styrke innsatsen i kampen mot ISIL i Irak og Syria. Denne resolusjonen ser på Irak og Syria som ett område når det gjelder utbredelsen og bekjempelsen av ISIL. USA og Frankrike har på vegne av koalisjonen anmodet Norge om å styrke vår militære og sivile innsats.
– ISIL må bekjempes i både Syria og Irak. Det kollektive selvforsvaret av Irak gir et folkerettslig grunnlag for å ta denne kampen også i Syria. Sikkerhetsrådets resolusjon 2249 understøtter dette sier utenriksminister Børge Brende.
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Regjeringen har besluttet å stille et nytt militært bidrag til koalisjonens operasjon. Styrken på omlag 60 soldater vil bidra med trening rådgivning og operativ støtte til lokale syriske grupper som selv kjemper mot ISIL. Det norske bidraget vil inkludere norske spesialstyrker. De norske styrkene vil ha base i Jordan.
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En av grunnene til at vi bidrar til koalisjonen er jo nettopp å bekjempe ISIL og dermed redusere faren for terrorangrep mot norsk og europeisk jord."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILIn-country training and logistical support; Foreign Assistance; General military actionhttps://www.regjeringen.no/no/aktuelt/styrker-kampen-mot-isil/id2499086/https://perma.cc/3HEA-7DQC
Norway2016-06-03Letter from the Permanent Representative of Norway to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 letter"""I am writing in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to report to the Security Council that the Government of Norway is taking necessary and proportionate measures against the terrorist organization Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL also known as Da’esh) in Syria in the exercise of the right of collective self-defence.
The Security Council recognized in its resolution 2249 (2015) that ISIL constituted a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security and called upon Member States to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed by ISIL and to eradicate the safe haven that ISIL had established over significant parts of Iraq and Syria. The Council reiterated that call in its resolution 2254 (2015). In that respect the Council noted the letters dated 25 June 2014 (S/2014/440) and 20 September 2014 (S/2014/691) from the Iraqi authorities stating that ISIL had established a safe haven outside Iraqi borders in Syria that was a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory. The Government of Iraq requested the United States to lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and military strongholds.
Pursuant to that request the Government of Norway is taking measures against ISIL in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations. The measures are directed against ISIL not against the Arab Republic of Syria."""Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2016_513.pdfhttps://perma.cc/LZ3M-AZNG
President of UN Security Council2014-09-19StatementFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""The Security Council urges the international community in accordance with international law to further strengthen and expand support for the Government of Iraq as it fights ISIL and associated armed groups
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The Security Council stresses that terrorism can only be defeated by a sustained and comprehensive approach involving the active participation and collaboration of all States as well as international and regional organizations to impede impair isolate and incapacitate the terrorist threat."""UNSC ResolutionISILForeign Assistancehttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_prst_2014_20.pdfhttps://perma.cc/7ETZ-SCX8
Russia2014-09-24Comment by the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding US air strikes at terrorists in Syria and IraqFormal written correspondence"""The legitimacy of the strikes is also questionable because such actions can only be taken with a UN sanction and clear agreement of the government of the country where they are undertaken in this case the Damascus government.
Russia is not the only state asking these questions. Moreover only the United States France and several Arab countries are involved in the bombing and shelling operation whereas the other countries that pledged to join the operation have limited their involvement to humanitarian actions. In other words this is not a broad coalition.
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We urge all responsible members of the international community to contribute to drafting and implementing a common anti-terror strategy. Only such a comprehensive approach rather than a coalition pursuing a narrow agenda of fighting the Islamic State can produce the desired result and help to free humankind from this 21st-century plague."""UNSC Resolution; Consent of host stateISILAirstrikeshttp://www.russianembassy.org/article/comment-by-the-information-and-press-department-of-the-russian-ministry-of-foreign-affairs-3https://perma.cc/G668-UQWG
Russia2014-09-26Statement by Foreign Minister LavrovPublic Statement"""""We believe that any action taken globally including use of force to overcome terrorist threats should be done in accordance with international law"" Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told reporters on the sidelines of the United Nations General Assembly.
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"It's very important that such cooperation with Syrian authorities is established even now that it's an accomplished fact"" Lavrov said. ""Excluding Syrian authorities from the struggle that is taking place on their territory not only goes against international law but undermines the efficiency of the effort."""""Consent of host stateOther terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-crisis-russia-lavrov-idUSKCN0HL21420140926https://perma.cc/3ZY3-XX9K
Russia2015-09-30Security Council ReportPublic Statement (news report)"Russia said to have circulated a draft Security Council resolution calling on countries to carry out military operations against terrorist organizations “and to coordinate their activities with the consent of the States in the territories of which such activities are conducted.”
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Reportedly ""the draft statement was not adopted due to the lack of agreement from the U.S. Apparently the U.S. believed that adoption of such a text would be perceived as (1) a requirement for the U.S.-led coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) to cooperate with the Syrian government and (2) a signal of Council approval of Russian military activity in Syria. For the same reasons the P3 and a number of other Council members refused to negotiate the subsequent draft resolution. It was never tabled for a vote as Russia could not garner the necessary nine votes."""Consent of host stateISILGeneral Military Action; Establishment of international coalitionhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/02/world/europe/russia-airstrikes-syria-assad.html; http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/monthly-forecast/2015-11/syria_25.phphttps://perma.cc/6CXS-F6WT
Russia2015-09-30Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""On the 30th of September in response to a letter by the President of Syria the President of Russia asked and received the consent of the Council of Federation for the use of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in the Syrian Arab Republic.
... We're referring here exclusively to the operation of the Russian air force to carry out strikes against ISIL positions in Syria. We have informed the authorities in the United States and other members of the coalition created by the Americans of this and are ready to forge standing channels of communication to ensure maximally effective fight against the terrorist groups."""Consent of host stateISILAirstrikeshttp://www.cnn.com/2015/09/30/politics/russia-syria-airstrikes-isis/https://perma.cc/C9DD-ES5Z
Russia2015-09-30Statement by Speaker of Federation Council (upper house of Duma) Valentina MatviyenkoPublic statement"""[A]irstrikes delivered by the United States France and Australia violate international law]. Valentina Matviyenk remarked that """"interference into the territory of a sovereign state can only be carried out on authorization of UN Security Council or on request of official legitimate authorities."" ""Those who participate in this operation have no such permission."
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Earlier today the Federation Council has unanimously granted permission to the Russian president to use the nation’s military force in Syria Kremlin chief of staff Sergey Ivanov told journalists. ""The Federation Council unanimously supported the president’s request — 162 votes in favor [of granting permission]"" Ivanov said. Russia will use only its Air Force in Syria against the Islamic State (IS) terrorist group upon the request of Syrian President Bashar Assad Ivanov said stressing that no ground troops will be sent.
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Matviyenko has said she is confident Russia’s actions in Syria will be support by the international community as necessary.
"I think that the absolute majority in the international community will support Russia’s actions as timely and necessary"" Matviyenko told journalists commenting on the decision to grant permission to the president to use Russian Armed Forces abroad.
The speaker noted that other opinions can be voiced around the world but the Russian side ""treats this calmly as it knows it is right."" ""In this situation we could not refuse Syrian President Bashar Assad and continue watching how people die how women and children die how historical and cultural sites are being destroyed"" Matviyenko stressed. ""I think that the time has come when we cannot not act when we cannot stay away from these global processes"" she concluded."""Consent of host state; Collective self-defense; UNSC approvalN/AGeneral Military Actionhttp://tass.ru/en/politics/824999https://perma.cc/T286-GV8E
Russia2015-10-01Deputy Foreign Minister Ilya RogachevPublic statement"""The Russian military incursion may not be limited to Syria the deputy foreign minister Ilya Rogachev suggested on Thursday in Moscow. He indicated that Moscow would be receptive to an invitation by Baghdad to assist in the fight against the Islamic State in that country."""Consent of host stateISIL; Other terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/02/world/middleeast/russia-syria-airstrikes-isis.htmlhttps://perma.cc/48WH-43NP
Russia2015-10-15Annex to the Letter from the Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""[I]n response to a request from the President of the Syrian Arab Republic Bashar al-Asad to provide military assistance in combating the terrorist group Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and other terrorist groups operating in Syria the Russian Federation began launching air and missile strikes against the assets of terrorist formations in the territory of the Syrian Arab Republic on 30 September 2015.
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The threat posed by ISIL and other terrorist groups clearly extends far beyond the region of the Middle East and North Africa. Their elimination requires truly collective approaches based on the norms and principle of international law and the provisions of the United Nations Charter bringing together each and every force committed to defeating terrorism and ensuring their flexible and efficient coordination. The Russian Federation has therefore submitted specific proposals to the Security Council aimed at establishing a united front to combat terrorism."""Consent of host state"ISIL other groups"Airstrikeshttp://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/792https://perma.cc/9WGT-7H7B
Russia2016-02-05Statement by the Head of the State Duma Committee For State Constructionand Law Pavel KrasheninnikovPublic Statement"""A Russian deputy has warned Saudi Arabia that any military operation in Syria without the Damascus government's consent amounts to a declaration of war. ""Syria has to give official consent to invite otherwise it will be a war. The same applies to international law"" Pavel Krasheninnikov the head of the State Duma committee told Interfax on Friday.
Krasheninnikov said that by promising a ground operation in Syria Riyadh now ""intends to send troops to the territory of a sovereign state essentially without declaring a war."""""Consent of host stateUnclearTroops on the groundhttps://www.sott.net/article/311629-Russia-Uninvited-Saudi-military-intervention-in-Syria-is-a-declaration-of-warhttps://perma.cc/KC7N-AUNT
Russia2016-04-28Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov has said that US military intervention in Syria without the authorization of the ""legitimate"" Syrian authorities was a ""big mistake."
"I've told our American partners repeatedly that this is a big mistake. Just like they received approval from the Iraqi government they should have obtained approval from Damascus or come to the UN Security Council"" he said.
"The fact that they went there illegally reflects firstly the arrogant stance that Syrian President Assad heads an illegitimate regime"" Lavrov said in remarks published on Thursday.
"And secondly in my opinion the desire to keep their hands untied and be able to use the coalition to attack not only terrorist positions but perhaps also the regime's forces later on in order to overthrow it as it happened in Libya."
Lavrov said Russia is ""the only country engaged in anti-terrorism activities in Syria legally."""""Consent of host stateOther terrorist groups Unclearhttp://en.alalam.ir/news/1813079https://perma.cc/RFV3-MTMT
Russia2013-01-31Foreign Ministry OfficePublic Statement"""""If this information is confirmed we are dealing with unprovoked attacks on targets on the territory of a sovereign country which blatantly violates the U.N. Charter and is unacceptable no matter the motives"" Russia's foreign ministry said."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; UNSC resolutionAssad regimeAirstrikeshttp://www.reuters.com/article/us-syria-israel-attack-idUSBRE90U0TX20130131https://perma.cc/5CAN-DXNP
Russia2013/09/04Statement by the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding US airstrikes at the Assad regime following reports of chemical weapons use in SyriaPublic Statement"""As before we consider this position to be fundamentally contrary to international law and therefore unacceptable.
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Syria does not participate in the 1993 Convention on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Nevertheless this country is bound by the ban on the use of chemical weapons in accordance with the Geneva Protocol on the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating Poisonous or Other Gases and of Bacteriological Means of June 17 1925. Its Non-compliance if any will be qualified as a violation of existing international law. However the planned response by the United States to the hypothesis of Syria's violation of the Protocol is in itself a flagrant violation of the principles and norms of the modern world order based on the UN Charter a form of armed reprisals prohibited by international law.
The use of force in international law is allowed only in two cases: during the exercise of the right to individual or collective self-defense under Article 51 of the UN Charter or on the basis of a UNSC Resolution taken in accordance with Chapter VII.""""""Как и прежде считаем такую позицию в корне противоречащей международному праву и потому неприемлемой.
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Сирия не участвует в Конвенции о запрещении химического оружия 1993 г. Тем не менее эта страна связана запретом на применение химоружия в соответствии с Женевским Протоколом о запрещении применения на войне удушливых ядовитых или других подобных газов и бактериологических средств от 17 июня 1925 г. Его несоблюдение если таковое будет доказано может квалифицироваться как нарушение действующего международного права. Однако планируемый ответ США на выдвигаемые гипотезы о нарушении Протокола со стороны Сирии сам по себе является грубым попранием принципов и норм современного миропорядка основанных на Уставе ООН формой запрещенных международным правом вооруженных репрессалий.
Применение силы в международном праве допустимо только в двух случаях: при задействовании права на индивидуальную или коллективную самооборону по ст. 51 Устава ООН либо на основании резолюции СБ ООН принятой по главе VII Устава."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; UNSC resolutionAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttp://www.mid.ru/siria/-/asset_publisher/IHwW2mmuiDWw/content/id/98022/pop_up?_101_INSTANCE_IHwW2mmuiDWw_viewMode=print&_101_INSTANCE_IHwW2mmuiDWw_qrIndex=0https://perma.cc/8GZU-F3LP
Russia2013/09/05"Statementby Igor Konashenkov spokesman for Russian Forces in Syria"Public Statement"""On Wednesday the Russian Defense Ministry issued a statement saying the UN resolution 2231 outlaws the use of combat aircraft “inside Iran” while the Tu-22M3s are used inside Syria “which is an independent and sovereign state.”
“We’d like to have an answer to a simple question – is there any provision in the UN Charter or a UN Security Council resolution or a bilateral US-Syria agreement allowing to bomb Syrian territory … from Turkish airbase Incirlik or any other foreign air bases” Major General Igor Konashenkov spokesman for the ministry said in turn."""UNSC resolutionUnclearAirstrikeshttps://www.rt.com/news/356290-lavrov-russia-iran-airbase/https://perma.cc/6NGL-9FKP
Russia2015/10/01Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""The legal basis of the international coalition is really flawed. You cannot operate without Security Counci mandate you cannot operate without the consent of the country in question. And we said from the very beginning when the coalition was announced that it was a mistake not to go to the Security Council it was another mistake not to engage with the Syrians."""UNSC resolution; Consent of host stateUnclearGeneral military actionhttp://www.msn.com/en-us/autos/connectedcar/lavrov-legal-basis-of-coalition-in-syria-is-flawed/vp-AAf0joGhttps://perma.cc/FVN9-6S77
Russia2015/09/30"Statementby Sergei Ivanov then Chief of Staff of the Russian President"Public Statement"Actions of the international coalition bombing Syria ""are carried out in avoidance of international law. In order to follow international law one of two conditions must be met: either you need a UNSC Resolution or a request for military aid from the country on whose territory you will be carrying out military actions ... in that respect I'd like to inform you that the President of the Syrian Arab Republic came to our leadership with a request for military aid. Thus I can say that of course we need to fight terrorism we need to assemble all international forces but it's desirable and essential at the same time to follow norms of international law."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Эти действия совершаются в обход международного права. ""Чтобы международное право было соблюдено нужно соблюдение одного из двух условий - либо резолюция Совета Безопасности ООН либо просьба той страны по территории которой наносится удар об оказании военной помощи"" - пояснил Иванов."""UNSC resolution; Consent of host stateOther terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttp://tass.ru/politika/2302922https://perma.cc/6HKE-M6CZ
Russia2015/09/30Statement by Vladimir PutinPublic Statement"""Russia's participation in the anti-terrorist operation in Syria is being carried out on an international legal basis in accordance with the official request to us by the Syrian President."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Участие России в антитеррористической операции в Сирии осуществляется на основе международного права в соответствии с официальным обращением к нам президента САР."""Consent of host stateOther terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttps://rg.ru/2015/09/30/pravo.htmlhttps://perma.cc/45TB-4QPY
Russia2016/01/26Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""If you take international law the Geneva Conventions and their protocols don't allow the use of military force of a state against installations where there may be civilians"" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Если брать международное право то Женевские конвенции протоколы к ним не допускают применения вооруженной силы государства против объектов на которых могут быть гражданские лица."""N/AUnclearGeneral military actionhttp://vz.ru/news/2016/1/26/790630.htmlhttps://perma.cc/P3TD-AYBY
Russia2013/07/15Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""The establishment of a no-fly zone above part of Syrian territory will be a violation of international law even if the rocket systems guaranteeing the zone are located on Jordanian territory. ""You don't need to be an expert to know that this would be a violation of international law."""" --PILAC Informal Translation""""""Создание бесполетной зоны над частью сирийской территории будет нарушением международного права даже если обеспечивающие ее ракетные комплексы будут находиться на территории Иордании."""""N/AAssad regimeNo-fly zonehttp://www.rbc.ru/politics/15/06/2013/57040a779a7947fcbd44a1b9https://perma.cc/5QZ9-VFFR
Russia2015/05/10Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""The overthrow of the ruling regime in Damascus would be a vulgar violation of the resolution of the UN Security Council which adopted the Geneva communique of June 30 2012. This communique envisions an exclusively peaceful political-diplomatic regulation of the Syrian crisis."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Свержение правящего в Дамаске режима будет грубейшим нарушением резолюции Совета Безопасности ООН которая одобрила Женевское коммюнике от 30 июня 2012 года. Это коммюнике предусматривает исключительно мирное политико-дипломатическое урегулирование сирийского кризиса"" — заявил Лавров по итогам переговоров со своим лаосским коллегой Тхонглуном Сисулитом."UNSC ResolutionAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttps://ria.ru/world/20151005/1297034149.htmlhttps://perma.cc/9BXL-KCM4
Russia2013/04/13Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic Statement"""Arming the Syrian opposition directly or indirectly would be a violation of international law."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Вооружение сирийской оппозиции прямое или косвенное будет нарушением международного права."""N/AUnclearForeign Assistancehttp://www.panarmenian.net/rus/news/149733/https://perma.cc/VNM5-5NPM
Russia2015/09/30"Statement by Valentina Matvienko Chairwoman of the Federation Council"Public Statement"""According to Matvienko interventions within the territory of a sovereign state can take place only with the agreement of the UN Security Council or following an official request from the legitimate government. ""Those who participate in this operation [the Western coalition] don't have such permission."""" --PILAC Informal Translation""""По словам Матвиенко вторгаться на территорию суверенного государства можно либо по согласию Совбеза ООН либо если есть официальное обращение легитимных властей. ""У тех кто уже участвует в этой операции такого разрешения нет"" — подчеркнула спикер верхней палаты парламента."""UNSC resolution; Consent of host stateUnclearGeneral military actionhttp://news-front.info/2015/09/30/spiker-sovfeda-rf-bombardirovki-sirijskoj-territorii-aviaciej-ssha-francii-i-avstralii-narushayut-mezhdunarodnoe-pravo/https://perma.cc/6GKL-JGWE
Russia2015/09/30"Statement by Sergei Ivanov then Chief of Staff of the Russian President"Public Statement"Ivanov pointed out that the number of Russians and CIS-country citizens that are flocking to ISIS ""is growing not by the day but by the hour"" and that ""we're talking about not dozens not hundreds but of thousands of such Russians."" According to his information ""some of them have already returned to the Russian Federation and it's easy to suppose - you don't need to have the gift of prophecy - that they'll continue to return to our territory ... thus it's rational to act in a preemptive fashion outside of our borders and not confront this problem in Russia."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Иванов также отметил что количество россиян и граждан стран СНГ которые примыкают к ИГ ""растет не по дням а по часам"" и речь идет ""уже не о десятках не о сотнях а о тысячах таких россиян"" цитирует ""Интерфакс."" По его информации ""часть из них уже вернулись на территорию РФ и легко предположить - не надо быть провидцем что они и дальше будут возвращаться на нашу территорию."" ""Таким образом целесообразно действовать на опережение и на дальних рубежах а не сталкиваться (в России) с этой проблемой"" - объяснил чиновник."""Individual self-defenseOther terrorist groupsGeneral military actionhttps://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/articles/2015/09/30/610834-sovfed-vs-rossii-za-rubezhomhttps://perma.cc/3UQA-EUPL
Russia2015/09/30"Statement by Sergei Ivanov then Chief of Staff of the Russian President"Public Statement"""""Russia will only use aviation in Syria acting upon the request of Syrian President Bashar Assad against the Islamic State"" said the head of the Presidential Administration Sergei Lavrov.
...
These actions [Western coalitions strikes in Syria and Iraq] are being carried out in avoidance of international law. ... In order to comply with international law you must fulfill one of two conditions - either a resolution of the UN Security Council or a request for military aid from the country on whose territory the strikes are to be carried out"" explained Ivanov. Ïn this regard I'd like to inform you that the President of the Syrian Arab Republic has made a request to the leadership of our country for military aid"" said the head of the Presidential Administration. ""In this way you can say that of course we must fight terrorism and we must unite all international efforts but at the same time it's desirable and necessary to observe the norms of international law."""" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Россия в Сирии будет использовать исключительно авиацию действуя по просьбе сирийского президента Башара Асада против ""Исламского государства"" заявил сегодня глава администрации президента РФ Сергей Иванов.
...
В связи с этим он отметил принципиальный момент ""Эти действия совершаются в обход международного права."" ""Чтобы международное право было соблюдено нужно соблюдение одного из двух условий - либо резолюция Совета Безопасности ООН либо просьба той страны по территории которой наносится удар об оказании военной помощи"" - пояснил Иванов. ""В этой связи хочу вас проинформировать что президент Сирийской Арабской республики обратился к руководству нашей страны с просьбой об оказании военной помощи"" - сказал глава администрации президента. ""Таким образом можно констатировать что с терроризмом конечно бороться надо надо объединять международные усилия но при этом желательно и необходимо соблюдать нормы международного права"" - подчеркнул Иванов."""Consent of host state; UNSC resolutionISIL; Other terrorist groupsAirstrikes; General military actionhttp://tass.ru/politika/2302922https://perma.cc/QE2T-REFQ
Russia2015/09/30"Statement by Dmitry Peskov Spokesman of Vladimir Putin"Public statement"""According to Peskov Russia is the only country which can legally use military force in Syria since the legitimate President Bashar al-Assad has requested it. ""The use of armed forces on the territory of third countries is possible only by a resolution of the UN Security Council or by a request of the legitimate leadership of this country. In this case Russia is in fact the only country which can carry out operations on a legitimate basis in particular the request of the legitimate President of Syria""said Peskov."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""По его словам Россия - единственная из стран мира может законно использовать ВС в Сирии поскольку об этом попросил законный президент Башар Асад. ""Использование вооруженных сил на территории третьих стран возможно или по резолюции СБ ООН или по просьбе легитимного руководства этой страны. В данном случае Россия будет фактически единственной страной которая будет осуществлять операцию на легитимной основе а именно по просьбе легитимного президента Сирии"" - передал ""Интерфакс"" слова Пескова."""UNSC resolution; Consent of host stateUnclearGeneral military actionhttps://www.vedomosti.ru/politics/articles/2015/09/30/610834-sovfed-vs-rossii-za-rubezhomhttps://perma.cc/9Q24-QZ5J
Russia2016/10/07Statement by Russian State DumaPublic statement"""The Duma ratified on Saturday an agreement on the deployment in Syria of a Russian aviation group. The ratification was supported by all 446 voting deputies says a Correspondent of RBC news. This is in reference to the aviation group located at the Hmeimim Airfield (Latakia Province)."" ""Russia uses the airfield on a noncompensatory basis."" --PILAC Informal Translation""Госдума в пятницу ратифицировала соглашении о размещении в Сирии российской авиационной группы. Закон поддержали все голосовавшие 446 депутатов передает корреспондент РБК. Речь идет об авиагруппе дислоцированной на аэродроме Хмеймим (провинция Латакия) которым российская сторона пользуется на безвозмездной основе."N/AISIL; Other terrorist groupsAirstrikeshttp://www.rbc.ru/politics/07/10/2016/57f7ac659a79477abe72053chttps://perma.cc/4WU9-2H8F
Russia2016/02/04"Statement by Igor Konashenkov spokesman for Russian Forces in Syria"Public statement"""We see these actions by Turkey as a dangerous precedent and an attempt to conceal illegal military activity on the border with Syria. Moreover we have serious reason to suspect intensive preparations by Turkey to a military intervention on the territory of a sovereign state - the Syrian Arab Republic."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Расцениваем эти действия Турции как опасный прецедент и попытку скрыть незаконную военную деятельность у границы с Сирией. Более того мы имеем серьезные основания подозревать интенсивную подготовку Турции к военному вторжению на территорию суверенного государства — Сирийской Арабской Республики"" — заявил Игорь Конашенков."N/AAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttp://izvestia.ru/news/603375https://perma.cc/8KYZ-KKB6
Russia2013/04/14Statement by Foreign Minister Sergei LavrovPublic statement"""Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergei Lavrov announced on Sunday that supplies of weapons to the Syrian opposition are a violation of norms of international law. The United Kingdom yesterday said that it is considering the possibility of such a step in avoidance of an EU embargo.
During remarks at a press conerence in London Lavrov stated that international law doesn't permit the delivery of weapons to non-governmental forces and Russia considers such actions as violations of norms of international law."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Российский министр иностранных дел Сергей Лавров в среду заявил что поставки оружия сирийской оппозиции являются нарушением норм международного права. Напомним накануне Великобритания заявила что рассматривает возможность такого шага в обход эмбарго ЕС. Выступая на пресс-конференции в Лондоне Лавров напомнил что международное законодательство не разрешает поставки оружия неправительственным формированиям и Россия считает такие действия нарушением норм международного права."""N/AUnclearForeign Assistancehttp://www.golos-ameriki.ru/a/world-great-britain-russia-syria-lavrov/1621096.htmlhttps://perma.cc/69HQ-XW8G
Russia2016/04/27Statement by Defense Minister Sergei ShoiguPublic statement"""Liquidation of the terrorist threat is one of the main priorities for the Russian Ministry of Defense.
Our main goal has been determined by President Vladimir Putin - stop terrorism at the far approaches and don't allow it to spead into our country.
This is the task we're carrying out in Syria where in full compliance with international law by request of the legitimate leadership we are providing support to the Syrian army in its fight with ISIS Jabhat al-Nusra and other criminal groups."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Для Министерства обороны Российской Федерации ликвидация террористической угрозы является одним из приоритетов.
Наша главная цель определена Президентом России В.В.Путиным – остановить терроризм на дальних подступах не дать ему перекинуться на нашу страну.
Именно эту задачу мы и решаем в Сирии где в полном соответствии с международным правом по просьбе легитимного руководства оказываем поддержку сирийской армии в борьбе с ИГИЛ «Джабхат ан-Нусрой» и другими преступными группировками."""Individual self-defense; Consent of host stateOther terrorist groups; ISILGeneral military actionhttps://russische-botschaft.ru/ru/2016/04/27/vystuplenie-ministra-oborony-rossiy/https://perma.cc/H5PM-JV27
Russia2012/02/10Resolution by Russian DumaFormal written correspondence"""… [A]s experience with a similar scenario in Libya has shown no provisions of any documents adopted by the UN should be interpreted as reasons or bases for the use of force by any UN member state or international grouping without the direct consent of the UN security council. UN Security Council resolutions also should not contain calls to the change of political regimes and leaders as this is the unconditional prerogative of the people of sovereign states."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Как показало развитие схожей ситуации вокруг Ливии никакие положения принимаемых ООН документов не должны трактоваться как повод или основание для применения силы каким-либо государством - членом Организации Объединенных Наций или межгосударственным объединением без прямого на то согласия Совета Безопасности ООН. Резолюция Совета Безопасности ООН также не должна содержать призывы к смене политических режимов и лидеров поскольку это является безусловной прерогативой народов суверенных государств."""UNSC resolutionAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttp://www.duma.gov.ru/news/273/137567/?sphrase_id=2412218https://perma.cc/9PBB-XVMF
Russia2013/09/10"Statement by Sergei Naryshkin then Speaker of the Duma"Public statement"""We are categorically against any type of military operation with the participation of foreign forces in Syria outside of the institutions of the UN Security Council and the Russian Duma has frequently stated this principle."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Мы категорически против какой-либо силовой операции с участием иностранных войск в Сирии в обход институтов Организации Объединенных Наций Совет Федерации и Государственная Дума неоднократно и принципиально заявляли об этом."""UNSC resolutionUnclearGeneral military actionhttp://www.duma.gov.ru/news/274/434078/?sphrase_id=2412226https://perma.cc/L6CA-ETDB
Russia2013/09/10"Statement by Sergei Naryshkin then Speaker of the Duma"Public statement"""You will recall that a few weeks ago in the U.S. it was announced that the use of chemical weapons in Syria was a 'red line' after which the U.S. could use force against Syria…the U.S. position indicates that the observence of fundamental norms of international law is not an unconditional imperative priority for the U.S."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Вы помните несколько недель назад в США прозвучало заявление о том что «красной чертой» после которой Соединенные Штаты могут применить оружие против Сирии является применение химического оружия в Сирии. ...Позиция США говорит еще и о том что соблюдение фундаментальных норм международного права для Соединенных Штатов не является безусловным приоритетом и императивом."""N/AN/AGeneral military actionhttp://www.duma.gov.ru/news/274/434054/?sphrase_id=2412226https://perma.cc/CN69-PFAD
Russia2014/09/24Official Statement by Russian Foreign MinistryPublic statement"""The Russian side points out that such actions [airstrikes by the Western coalition] can be carried out only within the bounds of international law. This supposes not a formal unilateral 'notification' about strikes but the existence of explicitly expressed consent by the Syrian government or the adoption of such a resolution by the UN Security Council."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Российская сторона напоминает что подобные действия могут осуществляться исключительно в рамках международного права. Это предполагает не формальное одностороннее «уведомление» об ударах а наличие четко выраженного согласия правительства Сирии либо принятие соответствующего решения Совета Безопасности ООН — говорится в официальном заявлении российского внешнеполитического ведомства."""Consent of host state; UNSC resolutionUnclearAirstrikeshttp://izvestia.ru/news/577097https://perma.cc/ZJ7L-FENG
Russia2016/04/27"Statement by Valeriy Gerasimov Chief of Russian General Staff"Public statement"""Our forces are in Syria on legal foundations and by the request of the government of a sovereign state which you can't say about the International Coalition which de jure is violating all canons of international law."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Наши подразделения в Сирии находятся на законных основаниях и по просьбе правительства суверенного государства чего не скажешь о международной коалиции которая де-юре нарушает все каноны международного права."""Consent of host stateISIL; Other terrorist groupsAirstrikeshttp://tass.ru/politika/3242392https://perma.cc/ZJ7L-FENG
Russia and Syrian Arab Republic2014-09-11Statement by Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Alexander Lukashevich; Statement by Minister for National Reconciliation ali Haidar; President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""""The US president has spoken directly about the possibility of strikes by the US armed forces against Isil (IS) positions in Syria without the consent of the legitimate government"" ministry spokesman Alexander Lukashevich was quoted as saying.
"This step in the absence of a UN Security Council decision would be an act of aggression a gross violation of international law."
Syria also repeated its warning that the US had to co-ordinate with the Syrian government before launching air strikes on its territory.
"Any action of any kind without the consent of the Syrian government would be an attack on Syria"" National Reconciliation Minister Ali Haidar said on Thursday."""UNSC Resolution; Consent of host stateISILAirstrikes; Foreign assistance; In-country/out-of-country training and logistical support; Troops on the groundhttp://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-29154481https://perma.cc/GG39-L9J8
Russia; France; United States; Israel2015-09-30Statement by U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter; U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry; Russian Kremlin Chief of Staff Sergey Ivanov; Russian Federation Council Speaker Valentina Matviyenko; French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius; Israeli officialsPublic Statement"""Claiming to target ISIS Russia conducted its first airstrikes in Syria while U.S. officials expressed serious doubts Wednesday about what the true intentions behind the move may be.
According to the Russian Defense Ministry warplanes targeted eight ISIS positions including arms transportation communications and control positions.
But U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter countered that claim.
"I want to be careful about confirming information but it does appear that they (Russian airstrikes) were in areas where there probably were not ISIL forces"" he told reporters. ISIL is an acronym for ISIS.
...
A senior U.S. administration official told CNN's Elise Labott that a Russian airstrike near the Syrian city of Homs ""has no strategic purpose"" in terms of combating ISIS which ""shows they are not there to go after ISIL."
Syrian state-run news agency SANA reported that Russian warplanes had targeted ""ISIS dens"" in al-Rastan Talbiseh and Zafaraniya in Homs province; Al-Tilol al-Hmer in Qunaitra province; Aydoun a village on the outskirts of the town of Salamiya; Deer Foul between Hama and Homs; and the outskirts of Salmiya.
According to the London-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights 28 people were killed in the strikes including women and children. The Syrian National Coalition reported that 36 people were killed all civilians.
The U.S. official said the United States had no intention of preventing the strikes but that Russian planes didn't seem to be flying in areas where the United States is operating.
"They are not stupid"" the official said.
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During a statement at the U.N. Security Council meeting on fighting terrorism U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said: ""We have conducted a number of strikes against ISIL targets in Syria over the past 24 hours including just an hour ago. These strikes will continue."
Kerry said the U.S.-led coalition had conducted 3000 airstrikes against ISIS and that efforts would dramatically increase.
He warned that the fight against ISIS should not be confused with support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.
"Moreover we have also made clear that we would have grave concerns should Russia strike areas where ISIL and al Qaeda affiliated targets are not operating. Strikes of that kind would question Russia's real intentions -- fighting ISIL or protecting the Assad regime"" he said.
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Earlier Wednesday the upper house of the Russian Parliament gave President Vladimir Putin approval to use the air force in Syria state media reported.
"The Federation Council unanimously supported the President's request -- 162 votes in favor of granting permission"" Kremlin Chief of Staff Sergey Ivanov said according to state-run ITAR-Tass news agency.
Federation Council Speaker Valentina Matviyenko said that the Assad regime was the only legitimate force fighting ISIS ITAR-Tass reported. It quoted her as saying that strikes by the U.S-led coalition violated international law as ""interference into the territory of a sovereign state can only be carried out on authorization of U.N. Security Council or on request of official legitimate authorities."
Matviyenko's comments were echoed by Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov ITAR-Tass reported. ""As a matter of fact Russia will be the sole country that will be carrying out that operation on the legitimate basis at the request of Syria's legitimate authorities"" Peskov said.
Lavrov said Russia conducted airstrikes after a request from al-Assad.
Speaking at the start of the U.N. Security Council meeting to combat terrorism Lavrov said: ""On the 30th of September in response to a letter by the President of Syria the President of Russia asked and received the consent of the Council of Federation for the use of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in the Syrian Arab Republic."
He continued: ""We're referring here exclusively to the operation of the Russian air force to carry out strikes against ISIL positions in Syria. We have informed the authorities in the United States and other members of the coalition created by the Americans of this and are ready to forge standing channels of communication to ensure maximally effective fight against the terrorist groups."
Israeli officials said Russia had contacted Israeli defense officials prior to conducting its airstrike operation in Syria.
Federation Council Speaker Valentina Matviyenkosaid Russia had contacted Israeli defense officials prior to conducting its airstrike operation in Syria.
French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius said France had not received advance warning and he wanted to be sure Russia did not target opponents of the Assad regime or civilians.
"As far as the strikes themselves are concerned we have to check that it really was Daesh and terrorist groups that really have been targeted and not opponents to the Syrian regime or the civilian population"" Fabius told reporters after giving a statement to the Security Council. Daesh is the Arabic acronym for ISIS. ""I'm not accusing anybody of anything but we have to check the facts"" he said.
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Putin speaking at a government meeting said his country would not become mired in the Syrian conflict.
"This military operation is limited in time. Russian air forces will help Assad's army while it's on the offensive mode"" Putin said. ""There will be no Russian boots on the ground."""
UnclearISILAirstrikeshttp://www.cnn.com/2015/09/30/politics/russia-syria-airstrikes-isis/https://perma.cc/9T8P-PVK7
Russia; Syria2015-09-30Office of the President Bashar al-AssadPublic Statement"""The Russian air force was dispatched to Syria after a request from the Syrian state via a letter by President Assad to President Putin that includes an invitation to send the Russian air force as part of President Putin's initiative to fight terrorism.
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The Kremlin's chief of staff Sergei Ivanov said Assad had ""appealed to the leadership of our country with a request for military aid"".
In Damascus a military source welcomed the development as ""positive"" saying it was the culmination of long-standing coordination between Syria and Russia.
The move ""is something positive and natural between allied states and a supportive friend"" the source said.
"The coordination (with Russia) will now take on other dimensions beyond what was already the case"" he added.
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Moscow which already maintains a naval base in Syria's Tartus province is said to have sent at least 500 troops as well as a slew of military hardware into Syria.
Russia has been a staunch ally of Assad throughout the uprising against him that began in March 2011 providing his regime with weapons and financial assistance.
It has couched its stepped-up help as part of an effort to combat the Islamic State jihadist group which controls large swathes of territory in Syria and Iraq.
A US-led coalition is already fighting the group in both countries with air strikes but it does not coordinate with Syria's government."""Consent of host stateISILAirstrikeshttp://www.thearabweekly.com/?id=2208https://perma.cc/PG6G-WF87
Saudi Arabia2016-02-06Statement by Brigadier General Ahmed AsseriPublic Statement"""""Today the Saudi kingdom announced its readiness to participate with ground troops with the US-led coalition against ISIL because we now have the experience in Yemen"" Brigadier General Ahmed Asseri told Al Jazeera.
"We know that air strikes cannot be enough and that a ground operation is needed. We need to combine both to achieve better results on the ground."
Asseri didn't elaborate on how many soldiers the kingdom could send."""N/AISILTroops on the groundhttp://www.aljazeera.com/news/2016/02/general-saudi-arabia-set-deploy-troops-syria-160205042542486.htmlhttps://perma.cc/8QHS-TKKQ
Saudi Arabia; United States of America2015-12-15Statement by Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir; United States Secretary of Defense Ash CarterPublic Statement"[In response to a question on whether the initiative could include troops on the ground Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir stated] """"Nothing is off the table.
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It depends on the requests that come it depends on the need and it depends on the willingness of countries to provide the support necessary"" he told a news briefing in Paris.
A statement carried by Saudi state news agency SPA said the new coalition would have a joint operations center based in Riyadh to ""coordinate and support military operations."
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The statement cited ""a duty to protect the Islamic nation from the evils of all terrorist groups and organizations whatever their sect and name which wreak death and corruption on earth and aim to terrorize the innocent."
U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter welcomed the announcement after arriving at Incirlik airbase in Turkey on Tuesday at the start of a regional tour designed to drum up support for the U.S.-led campaign against Islamic State.
"We look forward to learning more about what Saudi Arabia has in mind in terms of this coalition"" he told reporters.
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In a rare press conference on Tuesday in Riyadh Saudi Arabia's 30-year-old deputy crown prince and Defence Minister Mohammed bin Salman said the new coalition aimed to ""coordinate"" efforts to fight terrorism in Iraq Syria Libya Egypt and Afghanistan.
"There will be international coordination with major powers and international organizations ... In terms of operations in Syria and Iraq we can't undertake these operations without coordinating with legitimacy in this place and the international community"" bin Salman said without elaborating.
He offered few concrete indications of how the new coalition's military efforts might proceed.
Asked if the new alliance would focus only on Islamic State bin Salman said it would confront ""any terrorist organization that appears in front of us."""
Collective self-defenceISILGeneral military action; Other (coalition expansion)http://www.reuters.com/article/us-saudi-security-idUSKBN0TX2PG20151215https://perma.cc/SL33-ADGB
Small Group of the Global Coalition to counter Daesh (Iraq France United States)"2015-07-02"Ministerial Meeting of the Small Group of the Global Coalition to counter Daesh - Declaration of the Co-Chairs (Paris June 2 2015)"Formal written correspondence"""3. Daesh offensives in Ramadi Iraq and Palmyra Syria highlight the urgency to renew and expand our collective endeavor to defeat Daesh. Coalition partners reaffirmed their strong unity and their commitment to work together under a common multifaceted and long term strategy to degrade and ultimately defeat Daesh a threat to the entire international community. ... They stressed their continued resolve to remove Daesh from the regions in which it established itself in Iraq and Syria and commended the dedication and actions of the Coalition’s working groups to this end.
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6. Coalition partners noted the continued deterioration of the situation in Syria and the inability and unwillingness of the Assad regime to fight Daesh. They reiterated their pledge to preserve Syria’s unity and sovereignty and called for the speedy launch of a UN-facilitated genuine and inclusive political process in order to implement the principles of the Geneva Communiqué –including the establishment by mutual consent of a transitional governing body with full executive powers. They affirmed that only a political transition will create the necessary conditions to reverse the tide of extremism and radicalism generated by the regime’s abuses and confront all terrorist organisations in Syria including Daesh efficiently."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""3. Les offensives de Daech à Ramadi en Irak et à Palmyre en Syrie soulignent l’urgence de renouveler et d’intensifier notre effort collectif pour vaincre Daech. Les partenaires de la Coalition ont réaffirmé avec force leur unité et leur engagement à agir ensemble dans le cadre d’une stratégie commune multidimensionnelle et de long terme afin d’affaiblir et à terme d’éradiquer Daech qui constitue une menace pour l’ensemble de la communauté internationale. ... Ils ont souligné leur détermination constante à éliminer Daech des régions d’Irak et de Syrie où il s’est implanté et ont salué l’implication et l’action menée à cette fin par les groupes de travail de la Coalition.
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6. Les partenaires de la Coalition ont pris acte de la détérioration continue de la situation en Syrie ainsi que de l’incapacité et de l’absence de volonté du régime d’Assad à lutter contre Daech. Ils ont rappelé leur souhait de préserver l’unité et la souveraineté de la Syrie et ont appelé au prompt lancement d’un véritable processus politique inclusif sous l’auspice des Nations Unies en vue de mettre en œuvre les principes du communiqué de Genève – y compris la mise en place par consentement mutuel d’un organe de gouvernement transitoire doté de la plénitude du pouvoir exécutif. Ils ont affirmé que seule une transition politique permettra d’établir les conditions nécessaires pour renverser la vague d’extrémisme et de radicalisme engendrée par les abus du régime et de lutter efficacement contre toutes les organisations terroristes en Syrie y compris Daech."""UnclearISILGeneral military action"English: http://www.franceonu.org/Ministerial-Meeting-of-the-Small-Group-of-the-Global-Coalition-to-counter-Daesh
French: http://www.franceonu.org/Coalition-contre-Daech-reunion-ministerielle-restreinte"https://perma.cc/G4E9-938T
Spain2015-09-00Statement by Lieutenant Coronel Jorge Manuel Cotorruelo of the Spanish militaryPublic Statement"""Spain has taken on a firm commitment to defend Adana against possible attacks from within Syria"" said Lieutenant Coronel Cotorruelo commander of the first deployed Spanish Patriot unit in his farewell address. ""We have completed our mission over the last six months and of course our reinforcements will continue contributing to the defense of NATO borders."" The Spanish official emphasized at the same time ""the close collaboration with our American and German allies as well as the host nation."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""España asumió el firme compromiso de defender Adana contra un posible ataque desde Siria"" dijo en el acto de despedida el teniente coronel Cotorruelo comandante de la primera unidad Patriot española desplegada. ""Hemos cumplido nuestra misión durante los últimos seis meses y por supuesto nuestro reemplazo seguirá contribuyendo a la defensa de las fronteras de la OTAN."" El oficial español destacó asimismo ""la estrecha colaboración con nuestros aliados estadounidenses y alemanes así como el apoyo de la nación anfitriona."""Collective self-defenseISIL; Other terrorist groupsOther (purely defensive actions from within Turkey's borders. Troops are on the ground there)http://www.defensa.gob.es/Galerias/gabinete/red/2015/red-320-patriots-afganistan.pdfhttps://perma.cc/SY47-VA2M
Spain2016-10-25Spanish Minister of Defense Pedro MorenosPublic Statement"""The fight against DAESH is a long fight that must continue because it is a global threat."
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The Islamic State ""is far from defeated"" ... ""We should be ready to counter an increasingly diversified and extended Daesh in a variety of places around the world and including the internet under the name 'cybercaliphate.'"""" --PILAC Informal Translation""“""La lucha contra el DAESH es una lucha larga que tiene que continuar porque es una amenaza global."
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Estado Islámico ""está lejos de ser derrotado” ... “debemos estar preparados para contrarrestar a un Daesh más diversificado y extendido por diversos puntos del mundo e incluso en internet en el denominado ‘cibercalifato.'"""""Collective self-defenseISILN/Ahttp://www.defensa.gob.es/gabinete/notasPrensa/2016/10/DGC-161025-morenes-reunion-contra-daesh-paris.htmlhttps://perma.cc/878Z-9GWT
Spain2015-11-17Spanish Interior Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz; Minister of Defense Pedro MorenosInterview response; Public Statement"""""At this moment Spain is not planning on bombing Syria"" Interior Minister Jorge Fernández Díaz insisted in an interview with Telecinco on Tuesday morning.
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His comments echoed those of defence minister Pedro Morenés who on Monday said: ""Spain has no plans (to carry out airstrikes) neither has it been asked to."""""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.thelocal.es/20151117/spain-rules-out-airstrikes-as-pledges-support-in-fight-against-isishttps://perma.cc/BGG3-XHT8
Spain2013-08-28Minister of Foreign Affairs José Manuel García MargalloPublic Statement"“""The attacks with chemical weapons in Syria require a firm response from the international community” asserted foreign affairs minister José Manuel García Margallo in a press release on Tuesday. The Spanish government expressed its confidence in the UN Security Council and requested that the organization make “decisions that ensure that international law is respected.”"""N/AAssad regimeN/Ahttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/08/28/international-syria-intervention_n_3829832.htmlhttps://perma.cc/ZY33-PU46
Spain2016-10-27Official Statement from Ministry of Foreign Affairs on an attack against a school in SyriaFormal written correspondence"""The government reiterates its commitment from its position on the United Nations Security Council and on all the other relevant forums to the efforts by the international community to stop the war and alleviate the undesirable suffering being endured by the people of Syria."""UNSC resolutionN/AN/Ahttp://www.exteriores.gob.es/Portal/en/SalaDePrensa/Comunicados/Paginas/2016_COMUNICADOS/20161027_COMU307.aspx"English: https://perma.cc/9GRB-EEQ2
French: https://perma.cc/KN3V-YFAV"
https://perma.cc/9BQF-JN48
Switzerland2015-05-13Speech by the Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter at the Matías Romero Institute during his working visit in MexicoPublic statement"""In the Middle East the so-called Islamic State has conquered large parts of Syria and Iraq and has displayed a brutality unseen on this planet for many decades. Four huge humanitarian catastrophes – in Syria in Iraq in South Sudan and in the Central African Republic – have brought the international system to its very limits.
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So far 2015 has seen terrorist attacks in Paris and Copenhagen. The slaughter of innocent men women and children by Boko Haram in Nigeria and neighboring countries. The continued onslaught of the so-called Islamic State in the Middle East.
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We have entered a transitional period from that elusive unipolar moment to a more and more albeit not yet completely multipolar world. This shift was accelerated by a conscious political choice of the Obama Administration to have a less unilateralist and a less assertive foreign policy and by budgetary constraints.
Meanwhile other states have become more engaged and active internationally shoring up their foreign policy and military capacities to project influence beyond their borders.
This can have positive or negative effects. Obviously all accountable and responsible contributions to security and peace especially in a multilateral framework are welcome and important. However aggressive projections of power only increase instability and chaos."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/news/speeches.html/content/eda/en/meta/speeches/2015/5/13/57271https://perma.cc/RSG9-G4VB
Switzerland2015-06-17Speech by Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on invitation of the Swiss Foreign Policy SocietyPublic statement"""It is therefore little wonder that rarely have more demands been made of international diplomacy than at present. This also applies to Switzerland. Peacebuilding and security are increasingly important tasks for Swiss foreign policy. We must and want to make a contribution towards dealing with the crisis developments taking place around us. Such developments also put our freedom our security and our prosperity in jeopardy.
Switzerland’s successful model primarily depends upon taking the right steps internally. We nevertheless also require a stable international framework and a rule-based international order. As a heavily interconnected and export-oriented nation which benefits from globalisation in many respects it is in Switzerland’s interests to demonstrate commitment to peace and security."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/news/speeches.html/content/eda/en/meta/speeches/2015/6/17/57727https://perma.cc/QZT7-JQT5
Switzerland2015-09-30Address by the Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on the occasion of the 70th session of the UN General AssemblyPublic statement"""Again Switzerland attributes a key role to the UN in countering terrorism. We are concerned about the seeming competition between different military operations in Syria and ask the Security Council to act upon its responsibilities in leading efforts to counter terrorism and to restore peace and stability in Syria.
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Military force and law enforcement measures alone cannot defeat terrorism."" Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Official Translation""""Encore une fois la Suisse considère qu’un rôle clé incombe aux Nations Unies dans la lutte contre le terrorisme. Nous sommes préoccupés par le manque apparent de coordination entre différentes actions militaires en Syrie et nous demandons au Conseil de sécurité d'assumer sa responsabilité en conduisant les efforts pour s'opposer au terrorisme et pour rétablir la paix et la sécurité en Syrie.
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La force militaire et les mesures coercitives visant à faire respecter le droit ne suffiront pas à éliminer le terrorisme."""N/AN/AN/A"English: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/news/speeches.html/content/eda/en/meta/speeches/2015/9/30/58942
French: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/aktuell/reden.html/eda/fr/meta/speeches/2015/9/30/58942"https://perma.cc/M27D-68MH
Switzerland2016-06-13Address by Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter at the 11th International Security ForumPublic statement"""Armed conflict and violent extremism are often related to fragility which has become one of the key security and development issues of our time. The main reason why the war in Syria has turned into such a major tragedy is its toxic mix of fragility and geopolitics.
In sum we are confronted with a multitude of crises. Armed violence and humanitarian needs are surging. International law and established norms are being challenged."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/speeches/speeches-given-by-federal-councillors.msg-id-62162.html"English: https://perma.cc/9VGR-B43N
French: https://perma.cc/D872-VBNS"
Switzerland2013-12-11Speech by Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter at the conference «Montreux+5»Public statement"""Switzerland is firmly convinced that diplomacy should be the instrument of choice in dealing with armed conflicts. Diplomacy fosters security because only a political solution to an armed conflict can be sustainable. For this reason Switzerland strongly supports the international peace conference on Syria that is scheduled on the coming January 22."" --Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Official Translation""""Suisse est fermement convaincue que la diplomatie doit être l’instrument à privilégier en cas de conflit armé. La diplomatie contribue à la sécurité car seule une solution politique peut mettre fin à un conflit armé de manière durable. C’est pour cette raison que la Suisse apporte tout son soutien à la conférence internationale de paix sur la Syrie qui est prévue le 22 janvier."""N/AN/AN/A"English: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/news/speeches.html/content/eda/en/meta/speeches/2013/12/11/51338
French: https://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/fr/home/aktuell/reden.html/eda/fr/meta/speeches/2013/12/11/51338""English: https://perma.cc/9VGR-B43N
French: https://perma.cc/D872-VBNS"
Switzerland2016-09-23Interview with Federal Councillor Didier BurkhalterInterview response"SRF: ""Can you understand that many people regard the UN as useless?
Didier Burkhalter: Yes I can understand this. At the beginning of the United Nations General Debate there was still hope for progress in Syria with the truce and negotiations for a political solution. But then the events changed everything. Now it is again very difficult. That is why I have understanding for such a reaction. On the other hand what is the alternative?
SRF: Do you also have feeling that the UN is blocked in a way it hasn't been for a long time?
Didier Burkhalter: The nations that make up the UN are the blame for the blockades not the UN itself. The UN cannot function without the clear political will of the various actors and above all the states. When many different geopolitical interests are involved it becomes very difficult for the UN. In the Ukraine for example not the United Nations but the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has advanced. If we are progressing with another organization a blockade of the UN would not be as bad. But in the case of Syria there is nothing but the UN."" --PILAC Informal Translation""SRF: ""Können Sie verstehen dass viele Leute die UNO als nutzlos ansehen?
Didier Burkhalter: Ja ich habe dafür Verständnis. Zu Beginn der UNO-Generaldebatte bestand noch die Hoffnung auf einen Fortschritt in Syrien mit der Waffenruhe und Verhandlungen für eine politische Lösung. Doch dann haben die Ereignisse alles geändert. Nun ist es wieder sehr schwierig. Deshalb habe ich Verständnis für eine solche Reaktion. Auf der anderen Seite: Was ist die Alternative?
SRF: Haben Sie auch das Gefühl dass die UNO so blockiert ist wie seit Langem nicht mehr?
Didier Burkhalter: Die Nationen welche die UNO ausmachen sind schuld an den Blockaden nicht die UNO selbst. Die UNO kann nicht funktionieren ohne den klaren politischen Willen der verschiedenen Akteure und vor allem der Staaten. Wenn viele unterschiedliche geopolitische Interessen mit im Spiel sind wird es für die UNO sehr schwierig. In der Ukraine zum Beispiel machte nicht die UNO sondern die Organisation für Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in Europa (OSZE) vorwärts. Wenn wir mit einer anderen Organisation Fortschritte erzielen ist eine Blockade der UNO nicht so schlimm. Aber im Fall von Syrien gibt es nichts ausser der UNO."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.eda.admin.ch/content/dam/eda/de/documents/das-eda/departementsvorsteher-didierburkhalter/interviews-db/160923_SRF%20News.pdfhttps://perma.cc/T7GT-38CF
Switzerland2016-08-22Opening address by Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on the occasion of the Ambassadors and International Network Conference 2016Public statement"""What does that mean for our foreign policy? The Federal Council's response is:
- ""Law not power"": It is in Switzerland's interest that international relations continue to be regulated by international law.
- We want political solutions to conflicts: It is in Switzerland's interest that solutions to crises are found through diplomacy and dialogue. Switzerland can be a bridge-builder in this area.
- Finally our objective is an international order based on common rules: it is in Switzerland's interest that international and multilateral organisations and mechanisms can provide solutions to crises within an agreed and legitimate framework.
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3. Switzerland in a multilateral world
In its foreign policy strategy the Federal Council attaches great importance to promotion of effective multilateralism in particular in the area of peace and security. The international community has managed to conclude important new agreements (the 2030 Agenda the Paris Agreement on climate change). But the record is considerably less positive as regards managing and preventing conflicts as well as finding agreed solutions to security problems.
In the face of major crises such as those currently besetting Ukraine and Syria the United Nations Security Council is often incapable of agreeing on joint positions.
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The struggle for power being fought on the backs of countless innocent children women and men must end once and for all.
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However it is essential that parties to the conflict andregional and international actors clearly show that they are willing to make concrete progress at the political level so that a viable solution to the armed conflict in Syria can finally be found."" --Federal Council Official Translation""""Was bedeutet dies für unsere Aussenpolitik? Die Antwort des Bundesrats lautet:
- «Recht statt Gewalt»: Die Schweiz hat ein Interesse daran dass die internationalen Beziehungen im Rahmen des Rechts geregelt werden.
- Wir wollen politische Lösungen für Konflikte: Die Schweiz hat ein Interesse daran dass Krisen mit den Mitteln der Diplomatie und des Dialogs gelöst werden und dass sie eine Rolle als Brückenbauerin übernehmen kann.
- Schliesslich wollen wir eine internationale Ordnung mit gemeinsamen Regeln: Die Schweiz hat ein Interesse daran dass internationale und multilaterale Organisationen und Mechanismen gut funktionieren damit sie bei Krisen gut koordiniert und rechtlich legitimiert reagieren können.
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3. Die Schweiz und die multilaterale Welt
In seiner Aussenpolitischen Strategie legt der Bundesrat grosses Gewicht auf einen funktionierenden Multilateralismus vor allem im Friedens- und Sicherheitsbereich. Der internationalen Gemeinschaft ist es gelungen neue wichtige Kooperationsabkommen abzuschliessen (Agenda 2030 Pariser Klimaübereinkommen). Bei der Prävention und Bewältigung von Konflikten aber auch bei der Suche nach einvernehmlichen Lösungen für Sicherheitsprobleme ist die Bilanz allerdings weit weniger positiv.
Bei schwerwiegenden Krisen wie in der Ukraine oder in Syrien ist der Sicherheitsrat der UNO oft nicht fähig sich auf eine gemeinsame Position zu verständigen.
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Der Machtkampf der auf dem Rücken von so vielen unschuldigen Kindern Frauen und Männern geführt wird muss ein für alle Male beendet werden.
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Es ist jedoch unabdingbar dass die Konfliktparteien und die regionalen und internationalen Akteure deutlich zeigen dass sie gewillt sind konkrete politische Schritte zu unternehmen damit endlich eine tragfähige Lösung für den bewaffneten Konflikt in Syrien gefunden werden kann."" "N/AN/AN/A"English: https://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/speeches/speeches-given-by-federal-councillors.msg-id-63291.html
German: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/reden/reden-der-bundesraete.msg-id-63291.html"https://perma.cc/AM9S-QBRW
Switzerland2015-11-20Address by the Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on the occasion of the World Policy Conference in MontreuxPublic statement
"Will this spirit of coordination and dialogue - beyond the immediate divergences - also succeed in finding a solution in the Syrian crisis? Will the international community fight effectively against the so-called 'Islamic State' and on the basis of UN decisions? The future will tell.
But restoring consensus rebuilding a just and peaceful order also requires recognizing that there are limits to Western universalism that globalization - directed by the West for more than a century - is evolving towards multipolarity."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Cet esprit de coordination et de dialogue - au-delà des divergences immédiates - parviendra-t-il à s’imposer également pour trouver une solution dans la crise syrienne ? La communauté internationale va-t-elle lutter efficacement et sur la base de décisions de l’ONU contre le soi-disant « Etat islamique » ? L’avenir nous le dira. Mais le rétablissement du consensus la reconstruction d’un ordre juste et pacifique demande aussi de reconnaître qu’il existe des limites à l’universalisme occidental que la mondialisation - dirigée par l’Occident pendant plus d’un siècle - évolue vers la multipolarité."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/medienmitteilungen.msg-id-59579.htmlhttps://perma.cc/QU3H-BQNP
Switzerland2015-11-20Address by the Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on the occasion of the World Policy Conference in MontreuxPublic statement"""Switzerland calls on all actors involved to translate their shared solidarity expressions over the Paris attacks into a concrete common effort to stop the violence in Syria. Only then is there a chance to make progress towards the declared objective of credible inclusive non-sectarian governance with a new constitution and free and fair elections."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/speeches/speeches-given-by-federal-councillors.msg-id-59579.html"English: https://perma.cc/V33H-YFU4
French: https://perma.cc/GTR4-UPCM"
Switzerland2015-11-16Address by the Federal Councillor Didier Burkhalter on the occasion of the Forum for Economic Dialogue 2015Public statement"""We are gathering here after a weekend of sadness shock and pain. The dreadful terrorist attacks in Paris have hit us all. These attacks were not only against Paris and France but against all of us – against our freedom and the values of humanity. We have to stand firm and work ever harder to prevent violent extremism.
The Federal Council has condemned these barbaric acts by the so-called Islamic State in the strongest possible terms. Our thoughts are with the victims’ families and with the people of France. Switzerland grieves with France – our neighbour friend and close partner. We will not give in to terrorist intimidation and are determined to work with France and other partners to protect our peoples and our way of life – and to address the terrorist challenge with steadfast resolve.
The Paris attacks have tragically brought home to us just how topical the theme you are discussing today is. There is a resurgence of armed violence – of violent conflicts and of terrorism – that affects us all. ... The need for diplomacy has reached a scale not seen in many years.
But it is not just conflicts and terrorism that keep foreign ministries busy these days. There is a second development that has come to the fore namely the return of geopolitics. These two trends together – geopolitics and armed violence – are leaving a deep mark on our world.
The megatrend shaping the world has been and will remain globalisation. But – to put it in the terms of your conference – geopolitics and the resurgence of armed violence are reframing globalisation and the economics of war and peace. This has an impact on foreign policy agendas – including Switzerland’s foreign policy agenda.
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The return of geopolitics is a by-product of globalisation. Although a multipolar world does not necessarily stand in the way of effective multilateralism collective action has become more difficult to accomplish. Major powers appear to be defining their interests more against one another than with one another. Different visions are colliding – of global and regional order of governance and of development.
International norms and international law have come under increasing pressure. Geopolitical competition has become more pronounced not just at the global level but also in regional contexts. The status quo has been challenged in several regions including in East Asia (with the tensions in the South China Sea) in Europe (with the Ukraine crisis) and in the Middle East (in many ways). In my own contacts with colleagues in these different contexts the sense of distrust between some of these countries was palpable. There is great reluctance to iron out differences through dialogue.
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And then there are the jihadist terrorist attacks which must be addressed separately from the refugee issue. ISIL terrorism in Europe has taken on a new dimension with the Paris attacks. Insecurity in the Middle East and Europe are increasingly interlinked. The threat of terrorism is bound to persist on our continent for years to come even if we make every possible effort to diminish it."" --Federal Council Translation""""Wir kommen hier zusammen nach einem Wochenende voller Trauer Schock und Schmerz. Die schrecklichen Terroranschläge in Paris haben uns alle tief erschüttert. Sie richteten sich nicht nur gegen Paris und Frankreich sondern gegen uns alle – gegen unsere Freiheit und die Werte der Menschlichkeit. Nun müssen wir Rückgrat zeigen und noch konsequenter darauf hinarbeiten gewalttätigen Extremismus zu verhindern.
Der Bundesrat hat diese barbarischen Taten des sogenannten Islamischen Staats aufs Schärfste verurteilt. Mit unseren Gedanken sind wir bei den Familien der Opfer und der Bevölkerung Frankreichs. Die Schweiz trauert mit Frankreich – unserem Nachbarn Freund und engen Partner. Wir werden uns von den Terroristen nicht einschüchtern lassen und sind entschlossen mit Frankreich und anderen Partnern zusammen zu arbeiten um die Menschen und unseren Lebensstil zu schützen.
Der Herausforderung vor die uns der Terrorismus stellt werden wir mit unnachgiebiger Hartnäckigkeit begegnen. Die Anschläge in Paris haben uns tragisch vor Augen geführt wie aktuell das heutige Diskussionsthema ist. Wir erleben ein steigendes Ausmass an bewaffneter Gewalt die uns alle betrifft in Form von gewalttätigen Konflikten und Terrorismus.
Die zunehmende bewaffnete Gewalt verursacht enormes menschliches Leid und beeinträchtigt die Sicherheit und den Wohlstand weltweit ... Schon lange nicht mehr war der Bedarf an Diplomatie so gross wie heute. Doch nicht nur Konflikte und Terrorismus beschäftigen die Aussenministerien derzeit. Eine zweite Entwicklung spielt ebenfalls eine wichtige Rolle nämlich die Rückkehr der Geopolitik. Diese beiden Trends – Geopolitik und bewaffnete Gewalt – prägen unsere Welt derzeit stark.
Der Megatrend unserer Zeit ist und bleibt die Globalisierung. Aber diese Globalisierung verändert sich und wird überlagert durch die Geopolitik und die Zunahme bewaffneter Gewalt. Diese Entwicklungen haben Auswirkungen auf die aussenpolitische Agenda – auch auf diejenige der Schweiz.
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Die Rückkehr der Geopolitik ist ein Nebenprodukt der Globalisierung. Auch wenn eine multipolare Welt nicht zwingend ein Hindernis für einen wirkungsvollen Multilateralismus sein muss sind gemeinsame Aktionen doch schwieriger geworden. Grossmächte scheinen ihre Interessen eher gegeneinander zu definieren als miteinander. Verschiedene Visionen prallen aufeinander betreffend globale und regionale Ordnungsstrukturen gute Regierungsführung und Entwicklungsmodelle. Internationale Normen und das Völkerrecht geraten zunehmend unter Druck. Der geopolitische Wettbewerb hat sich nicht nur auf globaler Ebene verschärft sondern auch in verschiedenen Regionen. Der Status quo wurde in mehreren Regionen infrage gestellt unter anderem in Ostasien (mit den Spannungen im Südchinesischen Meer) in Europa (mit der Ukraine-Krise) und im Nahen Osten (auf vielfältige Art). Bei vielen Kontakten in diesen Kontexten ist für mich ein Gefühl des Misstrauens greifbar. Häufig ist die Bereitschaft zu einem Dialog allzu gering.
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Hinzu kommt das Problem der Terroranschläge das getrennt von der Flüchtlingsfrage anzugehen ist. Mit den Anschlägen von Paris hat der IS-Terror in Europa eine neue Dimension angenommen. Die Unsicherheiten im Nahen Osten und in Europa sind immer enger verflochten. Die Bedrohung durch den Terrorismus dürfte auf unserem Kontinent noch Jahre anhalten selbst wenn wir alles unternehmen um ihn zu bekämpfen."""N/AN/AN/A"English: https://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/speeches/speeches-given-by-federal-councillors.msg-id-59475.html
German: https://www.admin.ch/gov/de/start/dokumentation/reden/reden-der-bundesraete.msg-id-59475.html""English: https://perma.cc/L72A-G593
French: https://perma.cc/N5CV-292B"
Syria2014-09-29Interview of Syria's foreign minister Walid al-Moallem with APInterview Response""" Syria's foreign minister said Monday that the U.S.-led bombing campaign should be expanded to target other militant groups besides the Islamic State group noting that the fight against terrorism has aligned the Syrian regime with its Western and Arab opponents in a fight against a common enemy.
"They have the same ideology. They have the same extremist ideology"" Walid al-Moallem told The Associated Press in urging a widening of the U.S.-led aerial campaign to include all Islamic rebel factions fighting President Bashar Assad's government.
Speaking earlier at the U.N. General Assembly the Syrian foreign minister denounced what he called the United States' ""dual policy"" of striking at some militants in Syria while providing money weapons and training to others calling it a recipe for more violence and terrorism.
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Asked whether the strikes should include the loose umbrella rebel group known as the Free Syrian Army which is backed by the U.S. and its allies he said that group ""does not exist anymore."" In the interview al-Moallem tried to position his country as being on the same side as the U.S.-led coalition. Asked whether Syria considered itself now aligned with the West because both were fighting the same enemy al-Moallem replied: ""This is the fact."
"We are fighting ISIS they are fighting ISIS"" he said referring to the Islamic State group by one of its acronyms.
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Last month al-Moallem warned at a news conference in Damascus that any strike that was not coordinated with the Assad government would be considered as aggression.
But on Monday he denied saying that coordination was necessary adding that Damascus was satisfied with simply being informed of any U.S.-led action which he said the Obama administration did before the start last week of the aerial campaign in Syria.
He said the U.S. government sent three separate messages to Syria 24 hours before it launched its first airstrike on Sept. 23. The messages were identical he said: ""We (the U.S.) are not after the Syrian army or the Syrian government."
He said there have been no further messages as the U.S.-led coalition has ramped up its bombing campaign ""but it's OK."
"Until today we are satisfied. As long as they are aiming at ISIS locations in Syria and in Iraq we are satisfied"" he said.
Asked about Syria's position on the five Arab countries that have joined the bombing campaign in Syria al-Moallem said: ""We were not asked about them it's up to them."
"As long as they are hitting ISIS"" Syria would not criticize their participation he said.
However in his U.N. speech al-Moallem denounced members of the U.S.-led coalition as key supporters of ""armed terrorist groups."" He did not name them but Syria regularly accuses Saudi Arabia and Qatar of supporting the opposition fighting to topple Assad.
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"The political solution has to be based on what the Syrian people agree between themselves"" he said.
Al Moallem said the ""good offices"" of the new U.N. envoy to Syria Staffan de Mistura are needed but this doesn't mean that he has to interfere"" in talks which must take place in Syria.
He said participants must be people who are nationalists believe in combatting terrorism and in building a future for Syria that respects the ""the will of the Syrian people"" who re-elected Assad in March.
As for the communique agreed on by major powers at a Geneva conference in June 2012 calling for the establishment of a transitional governing body for Syria — which has served as a basis for negotiations — al Moallem said it will be up to the Syrian people to decide whether it's still valid."
Consent of the host stateISILAirstrikeshttp://www.businessinsider.com/syrian-foreign-minister-the-us-said-we-are-not-after-the-syrian-army-before-airstrikes-2014-9"English: https://perma.cc/686K-P3Q8
French: https://perma.cc/5RN3-84MY"
Syria2014-10-03Identical letters from the Chargé d'affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""The stated course of action of the Turkish Government is a bare-faced violation of the charter of the United Nations which sets forth the principles of respect for national sovereignty and non-interference in the internal affairs of Stataes. It constitutes an explicit attack on a founder member of the United Nations. The international comunity and in particular the Security Council must take action to curb the adventurism of the Turkish leadership which poses a threat to regional and international peace and security.
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The Turkish leadership has offered all forms of political military and logistical support to the armed terrorist groups. It has harboured funded trained and armed terrorists from over 83 States facilitating their passage into Syria.
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The Turkish Government continues to fully support armed terrorist groups including ISIL and the Nusrah Front in flagrant violation of Security Council resolutions 2170 (2170) and 2178 (2014). The international community and the Security Council … must insist that Turkey bring an end to its interference in the internal affairs of the Syrian Arab Republic."""N/AN/AForeign Assistance; Out-of-country training logistical supporthttp://repository.un.org/bitstream/handle/11176/159752/A_69_426%3bS_2014_719-EN.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y"English: https://perma.cc/6HAY-LAHN
French: https://perma.cc/2RSP-CVEV"
Syria2015-01-20Statements by President Assad in interview with Foreign AffairsInterview response"Q: ""In the past you insisted as a precondition for a cease-fire that the rebels lay down their weapons first which obviously from their perspective was a nonstarter. Is that still your precondition? ... A: We choose different scenarios or different reconciliations. In some areas we allowed them to leave inhabited areas in order to prevent casualties among civilians. They left these areas with their armaments. In other areas they gave up their armaments and they left. It depends on what they offer and what you offer.
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Q: So are you saying you want greater U.S. involvement in the war against ISIS?"" A: ""It’s not about greater involvement by the military because it’s not only about the military; it’s about politics. It’s about how much the United States wants to influence the Turks. Because if the terrorists can withstand the air strikes for this period it means that the Turks keep sending them armaments and money.
Q: Did the United States put any pressure on Turkey to stop the support of al Qaeda? A: They didn’t; they haven’t. So it’s not only about military involvement. This is first. Second if you want to talk about the military involvement American officials publicly acknowledge that without troops on the ground they cannot achieve anything concrete. Which troops on the grounds are you depending on?
Q: So are you suggesting there should be U.S. troops on the ground? A: Not U.S. troops. I’m talking about the principle the military principle. I’m not saying American troops. If you want to say I want to make war on terrorism you have to have troops on the ground. The question you have to ask the Americans is which troops are you going to depend on? Definitely it has to be Syrian troops. This is our land; this is our country. We are responsible. We don’t ask for American troops at all.
Q: So what would you like to see from the United States? ... A: Pressure on Turkey pressure on Saudi Arabia pressure on Qatar to stop supporting the rebels. Second to make legal cooperation with Syria and start by asking permission from our government to make such attacks. They didn’t so it’s illegal ... [I]f you want to make any kind of action in another country you ask their permission ... The format we can discuss later but you start with permission. Is it an agreement? Is it a treaty? That’s another issue. ... Any troops that don’t work in cooperation with the Syrian army are illegal and should be fought. That’s very clear.
Q: Even if this brings you into conflict with the United States? A: Without cooperation with Syrian troops they are illegal and are puppets of another country so they are going to be fought like any other illegal militia fighting against the Syrian army."
Consent (lack thereof)N/AForeign Assistance; Out-of-country training logistical support; General military actionhttps://www.foreignaffairs.com/interviews/2015-01-25/syrias-president-speakshttps://perma.cc/5NQJ-M2UY
Syria2015-02-09Statement by Foreign Minister Walid al-MoallemPublic Statement"""We will not allow anyone to violate our national sovereignty and we do not need any ground troops to fight Daesh"" al-Moallem said using the Arabic acronym for the extremist group. ""The Syrian Arab government is fully capable of fighting Daesh valiantly and we don't need any other troops."""Consent (lack thereof)N/AN/Ahttps://www.yahoo.com/news/syria-says-doesnt-jordans-help-against-122254827.html?ref=gshttps://perma.cc/V26G-DDGH
Syria2015-09-17Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""I write to inform the Security Council that the United Kingdom Australia and France are currently taking military measures against the Syrian Arab Republic. To that end they invoke a distorted reading of the intention of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations one that is blatantly inconsistent with the Charter and the resolutions of the Security Council particularly resolutions 2170 (2014) 2178 (2014) and 2199 (2015) all of which emphasize that States must respect the unity sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic.
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Article 51 of the Charter provides that nothing in the Charter shall impair or detract from States’ inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed force attacks a Member of the United Nations until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. France Britain and Australia claim that they are taking such measures at the request of the Republic of Iraq and in support of the right of Iraq to self-defence.
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In accordance with its constitutional duties and on instructions from the Syrian Government the Syrian Arab Army has over the last four years indefatigably fought such armed terrorist groups as Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) the Nusrah Front and other organizations associated with Al-Qaida ... . Any actor that genuinely wishes to fight terrorism in Syria must recognize the achievements of the Syrian Arab Army and the Syrian armed forces in combating terrorism and must coordinate with them.
The claims particularly those made in the Australian letter are belied by the actions taken by the Syrian Arab Army to combat ISIL the Nusrah Front and other armed terrorist organizations. ... Indeed the so-called international coalition led by America has yet to achieve anything tangible in its war on the terrorist organizations. On the contrary it has allowed the terrorist organization ISIL and its satellites and allies to expand move and deploy freely not only in Syria and Iraq but also in Egypt Libya Yemen Tunisia Kuwait and Saudi Arabia and even at the heart of certain Western States whose behaviour and political discourse encourage their terrorist actions.
If any State invokes the excuse of counter-terrorism in order to be present on Syrian territory without the consent of the Syrian Government whether on the country's land or in its airspace or territorial waters its actions shall be considered a violation of Syrian sovereignty. Combating terrorism on Syrian territory requires close cooperation and coordination with the Syrian Government in accordance with the counter-terrorism resolutions of the Security Council.
In order genuinely to fight terrorism the Governments and agencies of Britain Australia and France should stop exporting extremist terrorists to Syria and refrain from providing them with logistical support and a media platform from which to spread their obscurantist destructive ideology.
The Syrian Arab Republic stresses that the United Kingdom Australia and France must respect the resolutions of the Security Council particularly resolutions 2170 (2014) 2178 (2014) and 2199 (2015) all of which stress that States must respect the unity sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Syrian Arab Republic. Those States must also cease violating and distorting the meaning of Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Consent of host stateAssad regime; ISIL; other terrorist groupsForeign Assistance; Out-of-country training and logistical support; In-country training and logistical support; Troops on the groundhttp://www.un.org/ga/search/viewm_doc.asp?symbol=S/2015/719https://perma.cc/FX7U-EQ9V
Syria2015-09-21Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic reiterates that all parties must coordinate with it in advance and cooperate fully in order to eliminate terrorism as represented by Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) the Nusrah Front and other terrorist organizations entities groups and individuals associated with the Al-Qaida organization which are active on Syrian and Iraqi territory and pose a threat to regional and international peace and security. The United States Britain France Canada and Australia have sought to justify their intervention in Syria by citing the fight against ISIL. They have invoked Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations but have not consulted with the Syrian Government. That course of action distorts the provisions of the Charter and manipulates international law. Such an assault on Syrian sovereignty will merely give terrorism a freer hand. The only productive way to combat terrorism remains the establishment of an effective international coalition within the framework of international law and with the participation of concerned States particularly Syria which is the mai n party confronting terrorism in the region.""""Collective self-defense Consent of host state"ISILGeneral military action; Establishment of international coalitionhttp://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/70/385https://perma.cc/86U5-G845
Syria2015-02-06Statement by Syrian Foreign Minister Walid al-MoallemPublic Statement"""Speaking at a press conference held in the capital Damascus Syria's top diplomat said ""we will resist any violations to our sovereignty."
"Any ground intervention in Syria without the consent of the Syrian government is an aggression that should be countered which will be the duty of all of the Syrian people. And the aggressors will return to their countries in wooden boxes"" al-Moallem warned.
The head of the Syrian diplomacy said ""the logic and the normal sense rule out any possible intervention scenario but reviewing the crazy decisions made by Saudi Arabia in other areas suggest that nothing can be ruled out."
"I think there is something being cooked under a U.S. supervision between Turkey and Saudi Arabia"" he said.
"Whether Saudis or Turkish all those who will practice aggression on Syria will be sent back in wooden coffins"" he said."""Consent of host stateN/ATroops on the groundhttp://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-02/07/c_135083718.htmhttps://perma.cc/5WCR-E5YJ
Syria2016-04-28State owned Syrian media citing unnamed officialPublic Statement (news report)"""The Syrian government said on Thursday it was deeply concerned at reports 150 U.S. troops had landed in northeastern Syria condemning that as ""blatant aggression"" two days after the United States said it would be deploying more forces in Syria.
State news agency SANA cited an official saying ""we received with deep concern the news that spoke about the entry of 150 American soldiers to Syrian territory in the Rmeilan area"". It did not give the source of reports."""N/AN/AIn-country training and logistical support; Troops on the groundhttp://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-syria-condemnation-idUSKCN0XP1XMhttps://perma.cc/P4VG-CJYY
Syrian Arab Republic2015-05-25Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of the Syrian Arab Republic to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""Syria reiterates that it is prepared to cooperate bilaterally and at the regional and international levels to combat terrorism. It has also stated that it supports any genuine international effort aimed at countering the scourge of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations provided that in doing so every effort is made to safeguard civilian lives respect national sovereignty and adhere to international instruments. The so-called open war against terrorism contrived by certain countries and that has been going on for nearly a year has not achieved any of its stated aims. Instead it has enabled the terrorist organization ISIL and the groups that are affiliated and allied with it to expand move and spread not only in Syria and Iraq but also in Egypt Libya and some other African countries and even in Saudi Arabia. The international community must therefore stand resolutely in the face of those States that support and fund terrorism and armed terrorist groups the hatred of which has spread to the countries of the region and the entire world. On the other hand it should be noted that there are States that claim to be combatting terrorism and have joined counter-terrorism alliances while at the same time they are funding arming and harbouring terrorists and promoting their cause.
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The Government of the Syrian Arab Republic affirms its resolve to combat terrorism in Syria and its determination to continue fulfilling its duty to defend the Syrian people. It once again calls on the Security Council and the Secretary-General to take effective measures against armed terrorist groups and those States that support and sponsor them including the regimes in each of Turkey Qatar Saudi Arabia Jordan and certain Western countries in accordance with the relevant Security Council resolutions."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISIL; other terrorist groupsN/Ahttp://repository.un.org/bitstream/handle/11176/157635/A_69_912%3bS_2015_371-EN.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=yhttps://perma.cc/DYN3-9WCP
Turkey2015-07-24Letter from the Chargé d'Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Turkey to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""We have been facing threats and attacks emanating from Syria since the start of the conflict.
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With the emergence of Daesh the threats from Syria gained new dimensions. Syria has become a safe haven for Daesh. This area is used by Daesh for training planning financing and carrying out attacks across borders. Also Security Council resolutions 2170 (2014) and 2178 (2014) have underscored the threat posed by Daesh and the resolve of the international community to combat Daesh.
The terrorist attack that took the lives of 32 Turkish citizens in Suruc on 20 July 2015 reaffirms that Turkey is under a clear and imminent threat of continuing attack from Daesh. Most recenctly on 23 July 2015 Daesh attacked the border military post in Elbeyli and killed a Turkish soldier.
It is apparent that the regime in Syria is neither capable of nor willing to prevent these threats emanating from its territory which clearly imperil the security of Turkey and the safety of its nationals.
Individual and collective self-defence is our inherent right under international law as reflected in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations.
On this basis Turkey has initiated necessary and proportionate military actions against Daesh in Syria including in coordination with individual members of the Global Coalition in order to counter the terrorist threat and to safeguard its territory and citizens."
Individual self-defenseISILN/Ahttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_563.pdfhttps://perma.cc/RX6A-P7FL
Turkey2016-02-13Statement by Foreign Minister Mevlut CavusogluInterview response (news report)"""Turkey will supply ground forces to an anti-Islamic State coalition in Syria and will allow Saudi Arabian strike missions against the militants from its air bases Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu said in an interview published Saturday.
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Cavusoglu emphasized that no strategy for joint ground operations has yet been presented to the coalition. “If we have such a strategy then Turkey and Saudi Arabia may launch an operation from the land” he said. Referring to criticism that Turkey has been “unwilling” to join the fight against the Islamic State he said his government has been “pushing for more tangible suggestions.”"""N/AISILTroops on the ground; Airstrikeshttps://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/turkey-pledges-to-send-ground-forces-to-fight-islamic-state-in-syria/2016/02/13/310e2b82-d24f-11e5-b2bc-988409ee911b_story.htmlhttps://perma.cc/CKJ8-VCJ4
Turkey2012-10-04President Erdogan in a memorandum to ParliamentFormal written correspondence"""The parliament had already been due to vote on Thursday on extending a five-year-old authorisation for foreign military operations an agreement originally intended to allow strikes on Kurdish bases in northern Iraq.
But the memorandum signed by Erdogan and sent to parliament overnight said that despite repeated warnings and diplomatic initiatives the Syrian military had launched aggressive action against Turkish territory presenting ""additional risks"".
"This situation has reached a level of creating a serious threat and risks to our national security. At this point the need has emerged to take the necessary measures to act promptly and swiftly against additional risks and threats"" it said."""Individual self-defenseAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttp://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/10/2012103181110169706.htmlhttps://perma.cc/3D5K-Z6N5
Turkey; Iran2013-08-24"Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoglu; Deputy Chief of Staff of Iran's Armed Forces Massoud Jazayeri
Public Statement"""If a coalition is formed against Syria in this process Turkey will take part in it"" Ahmet Davutoglu told the Milliyet.
"After the inspection the United Nations needs to make a decision on sanctions. If there's no such decision other options will be on the agenda"" Davutoglu said.
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"America knows the limitation of the red line of the Syrian front and any crossing of Syria's red line will have severe consequences for the White House"" said Massoud Jazayeri deputy chief of staff of Iran's armed forces reacting to statements by Western officials regarding the possibility of military intervention in Syria."""N/AAssad regimeGeneral military actionhttp://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/8/24/us-moves-forces-towardsyriaconsultswithcameron.htmlhttps://perma.cc/3D5K-Z6N5
Ukraine2016/10/19Official Statement by the Ukrainian ParliamentPublic statement"""We note the…use by Russia of territory in illegally annexed Crimea as a base for support of its military operation in Syria…the Russian Federation has continued to neglect all possible norms of international humanitarian law nad demonstrate the complete absence of any respect to basic universal human values."" --PILAC Informal Translation""""Отмечаем ... использования Россией территории незаконно аннексированного Крыма как военного форпоста для поддержки военной операции в Сирии. Россия бесстыдно хвастается удачным испытанием современного оружия в Сирии.
Российская Федерация показательно продолжает пренебрегать всеми возможными нормами международного гуманитарного права и демонстрировать полное отсутствие какого-либо уважения к базовым общечеловеческим ценностям."""N/AN/AGeneral military actionhttp://rada.gov.ua/ru/news/news/Novosty/Soobshchenyya/136154.htmlhttps://perma.cc/3D5K-Z6N5
UN Secretary-General2014-09-23Statement by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki MoonPublic Statement"Militants in Syria pose ""an immediate threat to international peace and security"" and world leaders should ""come together decisively"" in support of efforts to confront extremist groups."N/AISIL; other terrorist groupsN/Ahttp://www.dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2014/Sep-23/271703-un-chief-welcomes-airstrikes-in-syria.ashx?utm_source=twitterfeed&utm_medium=twitterhttps://perma.cc/X724-A6JY
UN Security Council2015-11-20UNSC Resolution 2499UNSC Resolution"""[The Security Council d]etermining that by … its terrorist acts its continued gross systematic and widespread attacks directed against civilians abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law … its control over significant parts and natural resources across Iraq and Syria and its recruitment and training of foreign terrorist fighters whose threat affects all regions and member States even those far from conflict zones the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL also known as Da'esh) constitutes a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security.
Recalling that the Al-Nusrah Front (ANF) and and all other individuals groups undertakings and entities associated with Al-Qaida also constitute a threat to international peace and security.
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Noting the letters dated 25 June 2014 and 20 September 2014 from the Iraqi authorities which state that Da'esh has established a safe haven outside Iraq's border that is a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory.
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Unequivocally condems in the strongest terms the horrifying terrorist attacks perpetrated by ISIS also known as Da'esh which took place on 26 June 2015 in Sousse on 10 October 2015 in Ankara on 31 October 2015 over Sinai on 12 November 2015 in Beirut and on 13 November 2015 in Paris and all other attacks perpetrated by ISIL also known as Da'esh including hostage-taking and killing and notes it has the capability and intention to carry out further attacks and regards all such acts of terrorismas a threat to peace and security.
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Calls upon Member States that have the capacity to do so to take all necessary measures in compliance with international law in particular with the United Nations Charter as well as international human rights refugee and humanitarian law on the territory under the control of ISIL also known as Da'esh in Syria and Iraq to redouble and coordinate their efforts to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed specifically by ISIL also known as Da'esh as well as ANF and all other individuals groups undertakings and entities associated with Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups as designated by the United Nations Security Council and as may further be agreed by the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) and endorsed by the UN Security Council pursuant to the Statement of the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) of 14 November and to eradicate the safe haven they have established over significant parts of Iraq and Syria."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISIL; Other terrorist groupsN/Ahttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_res_2249.pdfhttps://perma.cc/2YJW-5KGF
United Kingdom2013-03-15Prime Minister David Cameron's OfficeFormal written correspondence"""For the sake of innocent Syrian civilians and our own National Security we cannot afford to rule out any course of action in the future. On this the 2nd anniversary of this tragic chapter of Syria’s history we are more determined than ever to bring this crisis to an end and to support the Syrian people in building the peaceful inclusive and prosperous Syria they deserve."""Individual self-defenseISIL; Assad regimeN/Ahttps://www.gov.uk/government/news/syria-crisis-2-years-onhttps://perma.cc/SBN8-WW2A
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-09-11Statement by Prime Minister's SpokespersonPublic Statement"""When asked about the Foreign Secretary’s earlier comments on [British non-participation in] air strikes in Syria the Prime Minister’s spokesperson (PMS) said the point was made in reference to Parliament’s decision last year on air strikes against the Assad regime. The PMS explained that with regard to ISIL we had a group that operated beyond recognised borders and that the international community needed to take a comprehensive approach. He added that with regard to air power we were not at the stage of taking specific decisions but the Prime Minister had not ruled anything out."""N/A"ISIL Assad regime"N/Ahttps://www.gov.uk/government/news/press-briefing-afternoon-11-september-2014https://perma.cc/WRN5-UFB6
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-09-23Statement by spokesperson of Prime Minister David CameronPublic Statement“The prime minister supports the latest airstrikes against ISIL terrorists which have been carried out by the U.S. and five other countries from the gulf and Middle East.”N/AISILAirstrikeshttps://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/around-world-mixed-reaction-to-us-led-airstrikes-in-syria/2014/09/23/16985bb6-4352-11e4-9a15-137aa0153527_story.html"German: https://perma.cc/RBG7-S3ND
English: https://perma.cc/U6E8-4CQD"
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-09-26Statements by Prime Minister David Cameron in intervention in front of the House of Commons [on intervention in Iraq]Public Statement"Column 1255: ""I beg to move ... [t]hat this House ... recognises the threat ISIL poses to wider international security and the UK directly through its sponsorship of terrorist attacks and its murder of a British hostage; ... notes that this motion does not endorse UK air strikes in Syria as part of this campaign and any proposal to do so would be subject to a separate vote in Parliament.
Column 1259: Let me address directly the issue of ISIL in Syria. I am very clear that ISIL needs to be destroyed in Syria as well as in Iraq. We support the action that the United States and five Arab states have taken in Syria and I believe that there is a strong case for us to do more in Syria but I did not want to bring a motion to the House today on which there was not consensus. I think it is better if our country can proceed on the basis of consensus. In this House as I am sure we will hear in the debate today there are many concerns about doing more in Syria and I understand that. I do not believe that there is a legal barrier because I think that the legal advice is clear that were we or others to act there is a legal basis but it is true to say that the Syrian situation is more complicated than the Iraqi situation. It is more complicated because of the presence of the brutal dictator Assad. It is more complicated because of the state of the civil war. We should be clear that we have a clear strategy for dealing with Syria backing the official opposition building it up as a counterpoint to Assad and working for a transition. As I have said in the end what Syria needs is what Iraq needs: a Government who can represent all of their people."""Collective self-defenseISIL; AsadGeneral military action; Airstrikeshttp://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm140926/debtext/140926-0001.htm "German: https://perma.cc/VL38-MK2G
English: https://perma.cc/Z32J-2MBG"
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-10-21Statement by Defense SecretaryFormal written correspondence"""The Defence Secretary has announced that UK Reaper and Rivet Joint aircraft will fly surveillance missions over Syria.
...
Reapers are not authorised to use weapons in Syria and alongside Rivet Joint will provide vital situational awareness making it an invaluable asset to the coalition allies who are combating ISIL."""Collective self-defenseISILOther (surveillance)https://www.gov.uk/government/news/surveillance-missions-over-syria-confirmedhttps://perma.cc/7TFD-ESUS
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-11-25Identical letters from the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General and the President of the Security CouncilFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""I am writing in accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations to report to the Security Council that the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is taking measures in support of the collective self-defence of Iraq as part of international efforts led by the United States.
These measures are in response to the request by the Government of Iraq for assistance in confronting the attack by the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) on Iraq contained in its letter to the President of the Security Council of 20 September 2014. The United Kingdom fully supports these international efforts whose purpose is to end the continuing attack on Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens and to enable Iraqi forces to regain control of the borders of Iraq by striking ISIL sites and military strongholds in Syria as necessary and proportionate measures."""Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military action; Airstrikeswww.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2014_851.pdfhttps://perma.cc/TBP5-TR6P
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2015-03-26Defence Secretary Michael Fallon Public StatementGovernment action"UK announces it will send 75 trainers to train moderate Syrian rebels to challenge ISIL.
...
"Michael Fallon the defence secretary announcing the new training deployment said: “Britain remains at the forefront of coalition military efforts to support the Iraqi government in their fight against Isil. This effective and closely co-ordinated activity in conjunction with Iraqi and Kurdish ground forces has largely stalled the terrorists’ advances.
“But Isil must be defeated in both Iraq and Syria. In Syria coalition airstrikes have supported the liberation of Kobane and have disrupted Isil’s logistics and supply lines. However defeating Isil ultimately lies with local forces and we are helping to create effective ground forces in Syria as well as in Iraq so they can take the fight to Isil.”"
Unclear"ISIL Assad regime"Out-of-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2015/mar/26/uk-military-trainers-help-syrian-rebelshttps://perma.cc/BB25-QH3F
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2015-09-07Letter from the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""In accordance with Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations and further to our letter of 25 November 2014 (S/2014/851) I am writing to report to the Security Council that the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland has undertaken military action in Syria against the so-called Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in exercise of the inherent right of individual and collective self-defence.
On 21 August 2015 armed forces of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland carried out a precision air strike against an ISIL vehicle in which a target known to be actively engaged in planning and directing imminent armed attacks against the United Kingdom was travelling. This air strike was a necessary and proportionate exercise of the individual right of self-defence of the United Kingdom.
As reported in our letter of 25 November 2014 ISIL is engaged in an ongoing armed attack against Iraq and therefore action against ISIL in Syria is lawful in the collective self-defence of Iraq."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defenseISILGeneral military action; Airstrikeshttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_688.pdfhttps://perma.cc/A8T2-SJ9M
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2015-09-07Oral answers by Prime Minister David Cameron to questions from members of the House of CommonsPublic Statement"""[O]ur police and security services have stopped at least six different attempts to attack the UK in the past 12 months alone.
...
In recent weeks it has been reported that two ISIL fighters of British nationality who had been plotting attacks against the UK and other countries have been killed in air strikes. Both Junaid Hussain and Reyaad Khan were British nationals based in Syria and were involved in actively recruiting ISIL sympathisers and seeking to orchestrate specific and barbaric attacks against the west including directing a number of planned terrorist attacks right here in Britain such as plots to attack high-profile public commemorations including those taking place this summer.
[T]he ... intention [of ""two ISIL fighters of British nationality""] was the murder of British citizens so on this occasion we ourselves took action. Today I can inform the House that in an act of self-defence and after meticulous planning Reyaad Khan was killed in a precision airstrike carried out on 21 August by an RAF remotely piloted aircraft while he was travelling in a vehicle in the area of Raqqa in Syria. In addition to Reyaad Khan who was the target of the strike two ISIL associates were also killed one of whom Ruhul Amin has been identified as a UK national. They were ISIL fighters and I can confirm that there were no civilian casualties.
We took this action because there was no alternative. In this area there is no Government we can work with; we have no military on the ground to detain those preparing plots; and there was nothing to suggest that Reyaad Khan would ever leave Syria or desist from his desire to murder us at home so we had no way of preventing his planned attacks on our country without taking direct action. The U.S. Administration have also confirmed that Junaid Hussain was killed in an American airstrike on 24 August in Raqqa.
...
T]he action we took was entirely lawful. The Attorney General was consulted and was clear that there would be a clear legal basis for action in international law. We were exercising the UK’s inherent right to self-defence. There was clear evidence of these individuals planning and directing armed attacks against the UK. These were part of a series of actual and foiled attempts to attack the UK and our allies and given the prevailing circumstances in Syria the airstrike was the only feasible means of effectively disrupting the attacks that had been planned and directed. It was therefore necessary and proportionate for the individual self-defence of the United Kingdom. The United Nations charter requires members to inform the President of the Security Council of activity conducted in self-defence and today the UK permanent representative will write to the President to do just that.
Turning to the process as I said to the House in September last year:
I think it is important to reserve the right that if there were a critical British national interest at stake or there were the need to act to prevent a humanitarian catastrophe you could act immediately and explain to the House of Commons afterwards.'—[Official Report 26 September 2014; Vol. 585 c. 1265.]
Our intelligence agencies identified the direct threat to the UK from this individual and informed me and other senior Ministers of that threat. At a meeting of the most senior members of the National Security Council we agreed that should the right opportunity arise military action should be taken. The Attorney General attended the meeting and confirmed that there was a legal basis for action. On that basis the Defence Secretary authorised the operation. The strike was conducted according to specific military rules of engagement which always comply with international law and the principles of proportionality and military necessity. The military assessed the target location and chose the optimum time to minimise the risk of civilian casualties. This was a very sensitive operation to prevent a very real threat to our country and I have come to the House today to explain in detail what has happened and to answer questions about it.
...[T]he strike was not part of coalition military action against ISIL in Syria; it was a targeted strike to deal with a clear credible and specific terrorist threat to our country at home. The position with regard to the wider conflict with ISIL in Syria has not changed. As the House knows I believe there is a strong case for the UK taking part in airstrikes as part of the international coalition to target ISIL in Syria as well as Iraq and I believe that that case only grows stronger with the growing number of terrorist plots being directed or inspired by ISIL’s core leadership in Raqqa. However I have been absolutely clear that the Government will return to the House for a separate vote if we propose to join coalition strikes in Syria.
...
[T]he right hon. and learned Lady Harman ... asked: Is this the first time in modern times that a British asset has been used to conduct a strike in a country where we are not involved in a war? The answer to that is yes. Of course Britain has used remotely piloted aircraft in Iraq and Afghanistan but this is a new departure and that is why I thought it was important to come to the House and explain why I think it is necessary and justified.
The right hon. and learned Lady [Harman] asked about the legal justification. She is right to say that we believe it was necessary and proportionate and there was no other way we could have met our objectives and all this was based on the Attorney General’s advice. We do not publish the Attorney General’s advice but I am very happy to discuss the content of that advice and describe what it was about which was largely self-defence.
...
There was a relatively unique set of circumstances—which is not to say that they will not happen again—in that these people were in a part of Syria where there was no Government no one to work with and no other way of addressing this threat. The choice we were left with was to either think 'This is too difficult' throw up our arms and walk away and wait for the chaos and terrorism to hit Britain or take the action in the national interest and neutralise this threat and I am sure that was the right thing to do. She asked if we would repeat this. If it is necessary to safeguard the United Kingdom and to act in self-defence and there are no other ways of doing that then yes I would.
...
I am restricted because of operational sensitivities and for reasons of national security. The police will have informed his former constituent’s family of what has happened. I would simply say that when we are dealing with people who are producing such a tempo of potential terrorist attacks—attacks on police and on members of the armed services attempted attacks on commemorations in our country—which the head of MI5 describes as having no recent comparator we have to take action. When we are dealing with people in ISIL-dominated Syria—there is no Government there are no troops on the ground—there is no other way of dealing with them than the route that we took. I think that for all those reasons it was the right route."""Individual self-defenseN/AN/Ahttp://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201516/cmhansrd/cm150907/debtext/150907-0001.htmhttps://perma.cc/XZX8-MJ6Z
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2015-11-26Statement by Prime Minister David Cameron in the House of Commons in response to the Foreign Affairs Select CommitteePublic Statement"""[T]he main basis of the global coalition’s actions against ISIL in Syria is the collective self-defence of Iraq.
Iraq has a legitimate government one that we support and help.
There is a solid basis of evidence on which to conclude firstly that there is a direct link between the presence and activities of ISIL in Syria and their ongoing attack in Iraq ... and secondly that the Assad regime is unwilling and/or unable to take action necessary to prevent ISIL’s continuing attack on Iraq – or indeed attacks on us.
It is also clear that ISIL’s campaign against the UK and our allies has reached the level of an ‘armed attack’ such that force may lawfully be used in self-defence to prevent further atrocities being committed by ISIL.
And this is further underscored by the unanimous adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2249.
We should be clear about what this resolution means and what it says.
The whole world came together – including all 5 members of the Security Council – to agree this resolution unanimously.
The resolution states that ISIL and I quote ""constitutes a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security."
It calls for member states and again I quote to take ""all necessary measures: to prevent and suppress terrorist acts committed specifically by ISIL ... and crucially is says that we should and again I quote ""eradicate the safe haven they have established over significant parts of Iraq and Syria."""""UNSC Resolution; Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military actionhttps://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/pm-statement-responding-to-fac-report-on-military-operations-in-syriahttps://perma.cc/N6A8-RQGX
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2015-12-03Letter from the Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations addressed to the President of the Security CouncilArticle 51 Letter"""In its resolution 2249 (2015) the Security Council recognized that the so-called Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) also known as Daesh constitutes a global and unprecedented threat to international peace and security. In this respect the Council noted the letters of the Iraqi authorities stating that ISIL/Daesh is a direct threat to the security of the Iraqi people and territory. Furthermore the Council condemned horrifying terrorist attacks perpetrated by ISIL/Daesh including in Souss Ankara Beirut and Paris and over the Sinai and noted that ISIL/Daesh has the capability and intention to carry out further attacks. ISIL/Daesh members are known to be actively engaged in planning and directing attacks against the United Kingdom from Syria.
In accordance with Article 51 of the Charterof the United Nations and further to our letters of 25 November 2014 (S/2014/851) and 7 September 2015 (S/2015/688) I am therefore writing to report to the Security Council that the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is taking necessary and proportionate measures against ISIL/Daesh in Syria as called for by the Council in resolution 2249 (2015) in exercise of the inherent right of individual and collective self-defence."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defenseISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2015_928.pdfhttps://perma.cc/T75T-SHFU
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland2014-09-26Statements by Prime Minister David Cameron in intervention in front of the House of Commons [on intervention in Iraq]Public Statement"Column 1259: ""[W]e have supported the Syrian National Coalition and the Free Syrian Army with advice training mentoring and non-lethal equipment and I am not proposing a change to that today."
Column 1263-64: ""There are a variety of legal arguments that can be deployed. In this case it could not be clearer that we are acting at the request of a sovereign state and if we were to act in Syria I believe that would be the legal basis too: collective self-defence against ISIL which threatens Iraq. But my hon. Friend is absolutely right to say and I have said this in the House before that if one is averting a humanitarian catastrophe that is a legal basis on which to act. Let me be clear again that although it is right that we are having this debate and this vote if there was a moment when it looked as though there [] could be an urgent humanitarian need for intervention I would be prepared to order that intervention and then come to the House and explain why."""Collective self-defense; Humanitarian intervention"Assad ISIL"Training and logistical support; General military actionPrime Minister Cameron: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm140926/debtext/140926-0001.htm Deputy Prime Minister Clegg: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmhansrd/cm140926/debtext/140926-0003.htmhttps://perma.cc/7LTF-GUPH
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Germany2014-09-11Statement by Foreign Minister Philip Hammond; German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter SteinmeierPublic Statement"""German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier told a news conference in Berlin that Germany has not been asked to take part in the air strikes and would not be participating. ""To quite clear we have not been asked to do so and neither will we do so"" Steinmeier said.
His British counterpart Philip Hammond said Britain ""supports entirely the U.S. approach of developing an international coalition"" against the Islamic State whom he described as ""barbaric"" and said that in terms of how to help such a coalition ""we have ruled nothing out"".
But asked by Reuters after his meeting with Steinmeier about President Barrack Obama's proposal for air strikes against IS in Syria Hammond replied: ""Let me be clear: Britain will not be taking part in any air strikes in Syria. We have already had that discussion in our parliament last year and we won't be revisiting that position."""""N/AN/AN/Ahttp://www.reuters.com/article/iraq-crisis-germany-britain-idUSB4N0QV00920140911"English: https://perma.cc/TCB2-M9AX
German: https://perma.cc/ZFK6-V3JQ"
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Russia2015-10-03Statement by United Kingdom Prime Minister David Cameron; Russian President Vladimir PutinPublic Statement (news report)"""Prime Minister David Cameron ""said Russian forces were not discriminating between Islamic State militants and others fighting the Syrian president.
...
"It's absolutely clear that Russia is not discriminating between Isil [IS] and the legitimate Syrian opposition groups and as a result they are actually backing the butcher Assad and helping him"" he said.
...
But Russian President Vladimir Putin has argued in recent weeks that his country's operation in Syria is designed to prevent the type of state implosion that took place in Libya after Nato's intervention there in 2011."""N/AN/AGeneral military actionhttp://www.bbc.com/news/uk-34432440"English: https://perma.cc/KV7X-ZSQ9
German: https://perma.cc/7D4M-AAAN"
United States of America2014-08-26"Statement by Caitlin Hayden spokeswoman for the White House National Security Council on reports of U.S. surveillance flights over Syria without permission from the Syrian government"Public Statement"""After ISIL killed American James Foley USA is reported to be sending surveillance flights including drones over Syria to gather intelligence - without asking the Government of the Syrian Arab Republic permission to do so. ""We're not going to comment on intelligence or operational issues but as we've been saying we'll use all the tools at our disposal."""""N/AISILOther (surveillance)https://www.yahoo.com/news/ap-source-obama-backs-surveillance-over-syria-021311193.html?ref=gs"English: https://perma.cc/8D9W-76LX
German: https://perma.cc/H8BB-RZ4M"
United States of America2014-09-10Statement by President Obama on ISILPublic Statement"""My fellow Americans tonight I want to speak to you about what the United States will do with our friends and allies to degrade and ultimately destroy the terrorist group known as ISIL.
As Commander-in-Chief my highest priority is the security of the American people. Over the last several years we have consistently taken the fight to terrorists who threaten our country. We took out Osama bin Laden and much of al Qaeda’s leadership in Afghanistan and Pakistan. We’ve targeted al Qaeda’s affiliate in Yemen and recently eliminated the top commander of its affiliate in Somalia. We’ve done so while bringing more than 140000 American troops home from Iraq and drawing down our forces in Afghanistan where our combat mission will end later this year. Thanks to our military and counterterrorism professionals America is safer.
Still we continue to face a terrorist threat. We can’t erase every trace of evil from the world and small groups of killers have the capacity to do great harm. That was the case before 9/11 and that remains true today. And that’s why we must remain vigilant as threats emerge. At this moment the greatest threats come from the Middle East and North Africa where radical groups exploit grievances for their own gain. And one of those groups is ISIL -- which calls itself the “Islamic State.”
Now let’s make two things clear: ISIL is not “Islamic.” No religion condones the killing of innocents. And the vast majority of ISIL’s victims have been Muslim. And ISIL is certainly not a state. It was formerly al Qaeda’s affiliate in Iraq and has taken advantage of sectarian strife and Syria’s civil war to gain territory on both sides of the Iraq-Syrian border. It is recognized by no government nor by the people it subjugates. ISIL is a terrorist organization pure and simple. And it has no vision other than the slaughter of all who stand in its way.
In a region that has known so much bloodshed these terrorists are unique in their brutality. They execute captured prisoners. They kill children. They enslave rape and force women into marriage. They threatened a religious minority with genocide. And in acts of barbarism they took the lives of two American journalists -- Jim Foley and Steven Sotloff.
So ISIL poses a threat to the people of Iraq and Syria and the broader Middle East -- including American citizens personnel and facilities. If left unchecked these terrorists could pose a growing threat beyond that region including to the United States. While we have not yet detected specific plotting against our homeland ISIL leaders have threatened America and our allies. Our Intelligence Community believes that thousands of foreigners -– including Europeans and some Americans –- have joined them in Syria and Iraq. Trained and battle-hardened these fighters could try to return to their home countries and carry out deadly attacks.
I know many Americans are concerned about these threats. Tonight I want you to know that the United States of America is meeting them with strength and resolve. Last month I ordered our military to take targeted action against ISIL to stop its advances. Since then we’ve conducted more than 150 successful airstrikes in Iraq. These strikes have protected American personnel and facilities killed ISIL fighters destroyed weapons and given space for Iraqi and Kurdish forces to reclaim key territory. These strikes have also helped save the lives of thousands of innocent men women and children.
But this is not our fight alone. American power can make a decisive difference but we cannot do for Iraqis what they must do for themselves nor can we take the place of Arab partners in securing their region. And that’s why I’ve insisted that additional U.S. action depended upon Iraqis forming an inclusive government which they have now done in recent days. So tonight with a new Iraqi government in place and following consultations with allies abroad and Congress at home I can announce that America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat.
Our objective is clear: We will degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy.
First we will conduct a systematic campaign of airstrikes against these terrorists. Working with the Iraqi government we will expand our efforts beyond protecting our own people and humanitarian missions so that we’re hitting ISIL targets as Iraqi forces go on offense. Moreover I have made it clear that we will hunt down terrorists who threaten our country wherever they are. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria as well as Iraq. This is a core principle of my presidency: If you threaten America you will find no safe haven.
Second we will increase our support to forces fighting these terrorists on the ground. In June I deployed several hundred American servicemembers to Iraq to assess how we can best support Iraqi security forces. Now that those teams have completed their work –- and Iraq has formed a government –- we will send an additional 475 servicemembers to Iraq. As I have said before these American forces will not have a combat mission –- we will not get dragged into another ground war in Iraq. But they are needed to support Iraqi and Kurdish forces with training intelligence and equipment. We’ll also support Iraq’s efforts to stand up National Guard Units to help Sunni communities secure their own freedom from ISIL’s control.
Across the border in Syria we have ramped up our military assistance to the Syrian opposition. Tonight I call on Congress again to give us additional authorities and resources to train and equip these fighters. In the fight against ISIL we cannot rely on an Assad regime that terrorizes its own people -- a regime that will never regain the legitimacy it has lost. Instead we must strengthen the opposition as the best counterweight to extremists like ISIL while pursuing the political solution necessary to solve Syria’s crisis once and for all.
Third we will continue to draw on our substantial counterterrorism capabilities to prevent ISIL attacks. Working with our partners we will redouble our efforts to cut off its funding; improve our intelligence; strengthen our defenses; counter its warped ideology; and stem the flow of foreign fighters into and out of the Middle East. And in two weeks I will chair a meeting of the U.N. Security Council to further mobilize the international community around this effort.
Fourth we will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to innocent civilians who have been displaced by this terrorist organization. This includes Sunni and Shia Muslims who are at grave risk as well as tens of thousands of Christians and other religious minorities. We cannot allow these communities to be driven from their ancient homelands.
So this is our strategy. And in each of these four parts of our strategy America will be joined by a broad coalition of partners. Already allies are flying planes with us over Iraq; sending arms and assistance to Iraqi security forces and the Syrian opposition; sharing intelligence; and providing billions of dollars in humanitarian aid. Secretary Kerry was in Iraq today meeting with the new government and supporting their efforts to promote unity. And in the coming days he will travel across the Middle East and Europe to enlist more partners in this fight especially Arab nations who can help mobilize Sunni communities in Iraq and Syria to drive these terrorists from their lands. This is American leadership at its best: We stand with people who fight for their own freedom and we rally other nations on behalf of our common security and common humanity.
My administration has also secured bipartisan support for this approach here at home. I have the authority to address the threat from ISIL but I believe we are strongest as a nation when the President and Congress work together. So I welcome congressional support for this effort in order to show the world that Americans are united in confronting this danger.
Now it will take time to eradicate a cancer like ISIL. And any time we take military action there are risks involved –- especially to the servicemen and women who carry out these missions. But I want the American people to understand how this effort will be different from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. It will not involve American combat troops fighting on foreign soil. This counterterrorism campaign will be waged through a steady relentless effort to take out ISIL wherever they exist using our air power and our support for partner forces on the ground. This strategy of taking out terrorists who threaten us while supporting partners on the front lines is one that we have successfully pursued in Yemen and Somalia for years. And it is consistent with the approach I outlined earlier this year: to use force against anyone who threatens America’s core interests but to mobilize partners wherever possible to address broader challenges to international order. """Individual self-defense; collective self-defenseISILN/Ahttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/10/statement-president-isil-1"English: https://perma.cc/2GNZ-MS6V
German: https://perma.cc/U46N-DE37"
United States of America2014-09-10Statement by President Obama on ISILPublic Statement"""So ISIL poses a threat to the people of Iraq and Syria and the broader Middle East -- including American citizens personnel and facilities. If left unchecked these terrorists could pose a growing threat beyond that region including to the United States. While we have not yet detected specific plotting against our homeland ISIL leaders have threatened America and our allies. Our Intelligence Community believes that thousands of foreigners -– including Europeans and some Americans –- have joined them in Syria and Iraq. Trained and battle-hardened these fighters could try to return to their home countries and carry out deadly attacks.
I know many Americans are concerned about these threats. Tonight I want you to know that the United States of America is meeting them with strength and resolve. Last month I ordered our military to take targeted action against ISIL to stop its advances. Since then we’ve conducted more than 150 successful airstrikes in Iraq. These strikes have protected American personnel and facilities killed ISIL fighters destroyed weapons and given space for Iraqi and Kurdish forces to reclaim key territory. These strikes have also helped save the lives of thousands of innocent men women and children.
But this is not our fight alone. American power can make a decisive difference but we cannot do for Iraqis what they must do for themselves nor can we take the place of Arab partners in securing their region. And that’s why I’ve insisted that additional U.S. action depended upon Iraqis forming an inclusive government which they have now done in recent days. So tonight with a new Iraqi government in place and following consultations with allies abroad and Congress at home I can announce that America will lead a broad coalition to roll back this terrorist threat.
Our objective is clear: We will degrade and ultimately destroy ISIL through a comprehensive and sustained counterterrorism strategy.
First we will conduct a systematic campaign of airstrikes against these terrorists. Working with the Iraqi government we will expand our efforts beyond protecting our own people and humanitarian missions so that we’re hitting ISIL targets as Iraqi forces go on offense. Moreover I have made it clear that we will hunt down terrorists who threaten our country wherever they are. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria as well as Iraq. This is a core principle of my presidency: If you threaten America you will find no safe haven.
Second we will increase our support to forces fighting these terrorists on the ground. In June I deployed several hundred American servicemembers to Iraq to assess how we can best support Iraqi security forces. Now that those teams have completed their work –- and Iraq has formed a government –- we will send an additional 475 servicemembers to Iraq. As I have said before these American forces will not have a combat mission –- we will not get dragged into another ground war in Iraq. But they are needed to support Iraqi and Kurdish forces with training intelligence and equipment. We’ll also support Iraq’s efforts to stand up National Guard Units to help Sunni communities secure their own freedom from ISIL’s control.
Across the border in Syria we have ramped up our military assistance to the Syrian opposition. Tonight I call on Congress again to give us additional authorities and resources to train and equip these fighters. In the fight against ISIL we cannot rely on an Assad regime that terrorizes its own people -- a regime that will never regain the legitimacy it has lost. Instead we must strengthen the opposition as the best counterweight to extremists like ISIL while pursuing the political solution necessary to solve Syria’s crisis once and for all.
Third we will continue to draw on our substantial counterterrorism capabilities to prevent ISIL attacks. Working with our partners we will redouble our efforts to cut off its funding; improve our intelligence; strengthen our defenses; counter its warped ideology; and stem the flow of foreign fighters into and out of the Middle East. And in two weeks I will chair a meeting of the U.N. Security Council to further mobilize the international community around this effort.
Fourth we will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to innocent civilians who have been displaced by this terrorist organization. This includes Sunni and Shia Muslims who are at grave risk as well as tens of thousands of Christians and other religious minorities. We cannot allow these communities to be driven from their ancient homelands.
So this is our strategy. And in each of these four parts of our strategy America will be joined by a broad coalition of partners. Already allies are flying planes with us over Iraq; sending arms and assistance to Iraqi security forces and the Syrian opposition; sharing intelligence; and providing billions of dollars in humanitarian aid. Secretary Kerry was in Iraq today meeting with the new government and supporting their efforts to promote unity. And in the coming days he will travel across the Middle East and Europe to enlist more partners in this fight especially Arab nations who can help mobilize Sunni communities in Iraq and Syria to drive these terrorists from their lands. This is American leadership at its best: We stand with people who fight for their own freedom and we rally other nations on behalf of our common security and common humanity.
My administration has also secured bipartisan support for this approach here at home. I have the authority to address the threat from ISIL but I believe we are strongest as a nation when the President and Congress work together. So I welcome congressional support for this effort in order to show the world that Americans are united in confronting this danger.
Now it will take time to eradicate a cancer like ISIL. And any time we take military action there are risks involved –- especially to the servicemen and women who carry out these missions. But I want the American people to understand how this effort will be different from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. It will not involve American combat troops fighting on foreign soil. This counterterrorism campaign will be waged through a steady relentless effort to take out ISIL wherever they exist using our air power and our support for partner forces on the ground. This strategy of taking out terrorists who threaten us while supporting partners on the front lines is one that we have successfully pursued in Yemen and Somalia for years. And it is consistent with the approach I outlined earlier this year: to use force against anyone who threatens America’s core interests but to mobilize partners wherever possible to address broader challenges to international order."""Individual self-defenseISILGeneral military action; Humanitarian action; In-country training and logistical supporthttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/10/statement-president-isil-1"English: https://perma.cc/5639-FUE6
German: https://perma.cc/QDN5-8DRL"
United States of America2014-09-23Letter from the Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-GeneralFormal diplomatic written correspondence"""In the letter dated 20 September 2014 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq addressed to the President of the Security Council (S/2014/691 annex) and other statements made by Iraq including the letter dated 25 June 2014 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Iraq addressed to the Secretary-General (S/2014/440 annex) Iraq has made clear that it is facing a serious threat of continuing attacks from the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) coming out of safe havens in Syria. These safe havens are used by ISIL for training planning financing and carrying out attacks across Iraqi borders and against Iraq’s people. For these reasons the Government of Iraq has asked that the United States lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and military strongholds in Syria in order to end the continuing attacks on Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens and ultimately to enable and arm Iraqi forces to perform their task of regaining control of the Iraqi borders.
ISIL and other terrorist groups in Syria are a threat not only to Iraq but also to many other countries including the United States and our partners in the region and beyond. States must be able to defend themselves in accordance with the inherent right of individual and collective self-defence as reflected in Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations when as is the case here the government of the State where the threat is located is unwilling or unable to prevent the use of its territory for such attacks. The Syrian regime has shown that it cannot and will not confront these safe havens effectively itself. Accordingly the United States has initiated necessary and proportionate military actions in Syria in order to eliminate the ongoing ISIL threat to Iraq including by protecting Iraqi citizens from further attacks and by enabling Iraqi forces to regain control of Iraq’s borders. In addition the United States has initiated military actions in Syria against al-Qaida elements in Syria known as the Khorasan Group to address terrorist threats that they pose to the United States and our partners and allies."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defenseISIL; Khorasan groupAirstrikeshttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_2014_695.pdfhttps://perma.cc/2NGE-SJQM
United States of America2014-09-23Statement by President Obama on Airstrikes in SyriaPublic Statement"""Last night on my orders America’s armed forces began strikes against ISIL targets in Syria. Today the American people give thanks for the extraordinary service of our men and women in uniform including the pilots who flew these missions with the courage and professionalism that we've come to expect from the finest military that the world has ever known.
Earlier this month I outlined for the American people our strategy to confront the threat posed by the terrorist group known as ISIL. I made clear that as part of this campaign the United States would take action against targets in both Iraq and Syria so that these terrorists can't find safe haven anywhere. I also made clear that America would act as part of a broad coalition. And that's exactly what we've done.
We were joined in this action by our friends and partners -- Saudi Arabia the United Arab Emirates Jordan Bahrain and Qatar. America is proud to stand shoulder to shoulder with these nations on behalf of our common security.
The strength of this coalition makes it clear to the world that this is not America’s fight alone. Above all the people and governments in the Middle East are rejecting ISIL and standing up for the peace and security that the people of the region and the world deserve.
Meanwhile we will move forward with our plans supported by bipartisan majorities in Congress to ramp up our effort to train and equip the Syrian opposition who are the best counterweight to ISIL and the Assad regime. And more broadly over 40 nations have offered to help in this comprehensive effort to confront this terrorist threat -- to take out terrorist targets; to train and equip Iraqi and Syrian opposition fighters who are going up against ISIL on the ground; to cut off ISIL’s financing; to counter its hateful ideology; and to stop the flow of fighters into and out of the region.
Last night we also took strikes to disrupt plotting against the United States and our allies by seasoned al Qaeda operatives in Syria who are known as the Khorasan Group. And once again it must be clear to anyone who would plot against America and try to do Americans harm that we will not tolerate safe havens for terrorists who threaten our people.
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Over the next several days I will have the opportunity to meet with Prime Minister Abadi of Iraq and with friends and allies at the United Nations to continue building support for the coalition that is confronting this serious threat to our peace and security. The overall effort will take time. There will be challenges ahead. But we're going to do what’s necessary to take the fight to this terrorist group for the security of the country and the region and for the entire world."""Individual self-defenseISIL; Khorasan groupAirstrikeshttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/23/statement-president-airstrikes-syriahttps://perma.cc/L686-DGXU
United States of America2014-09-23US Central Command News ReleaseFormal written correspondence"""Also in Iraq yesterday U.S. military forces continued to attack ISIL terrorists using attack aircraft to conduct four airstrikes. The airstrikes destroyed two ISIL Humvees an ISIL armed vehicle and an ISIL fighting position southwest of Kirkuk. All aircraft exited the strike areas safely. To date U.S. Central Command has conducted a total of 194 airstrikes across Iraq against ISIL.
The United States conducted these strikes as part of the President's comprehensive strategy to degrade and ultimately defeat ISIL. Going forward the U.S. military will continue to conduct targeted airstrikes against ISIL in Syria and Iraq as local forces go on the offensive against this terrorist group the release said."""Individual self-defenseKhorasan groupAirstrikeshttp://www.defense.gov/News-Article-View/Article/603301https://perma.cc/C9VT-X6H9
United States of America2015-04-10Conference by General Counsel of the Department of Defense Stephen PrestonPublic Statement"""Our military operations against ISIL have a firm foundation in international law ... In Syria the United States is using force against ISIL in the collective self-defence of Iraq and U.S. national self-defence and it has notified the Security Council that it is taking these actions in Syria consistent with Article 51 of the UN Charter. Under international law States may defend themselves in accordance with the inherent right of individual and collective self-defense when they face armed attacks or the imminent threat of armed attacks and the use of force is necessary because the government of the state where the threat is located is unwilling or unable to prevent the use of its territory for such attacks.
The inherent right of self-defense is not restricted to threats posed by states and over the past two centuries States have repeatedly invoked the right of self-defense in response to attacks by non-state actors. Iraq has been clear including in letters it has submitted to the UN Security Council that it is facing a serious threat of continuing armed attacks from ISIL coming out of safe havens from Syria and it has asked the United States to lead international efforts to strike ISIL sites and strongholds in Syria in order to end the continuing armed attacks on Iraq to protect Iraqi citizens and ultimately enable Iraqi forces to regain control of Iraqi borders. ISIL is a threat not only to Iraq and our partners in the region but also to the United States. Finally the Syrian government has shown that it cannot and will not confront these terrorist groups effectively itself."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Responsibility to protectISILGeneral military actionhttp://www.defense.gov/News/Speeches/Speech-View/Article/606662/the-legal-framework-for-the-united-states-use-of-military-force-since-911https://perma.cc/U559-JSKC
United States of America2015-10-30Statement by White House Press Secretary Josh EarnestPublic Statement (news report)"""The White House spokesman emphasized that the special forces heading to Syria don’t have a combat mission. Instead they are there to 'train advise and assist' the local forces. If they are attacked though they are prepared to engage in combat.
Earnest fielded questions about how long the U.S. special forces will be in Syria whether more troops will be deployed and just how dangerous it is for Americans serving in a “train and assist” role. He couldn’t say much on any of those points aside from saying the fight against the Islamic State is not “a short-term proposition.”"""N/AISILIn-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/obama-us-troops-syria_us_5633b6d0e4b00aa54a4e1270"English: https://perma.cc/SWC7-42Q8
French: https://perma.cc/2NYC-ESTG"
United States of America2016-04-04"Speech by Legal Adviser of the State Department Brian Egan"Public Statement"""[T]he United States’ armed conflict with ISIL is taking place in a complicated environment—one in which a non-State actor ISIL controls significant territory and where multiple States and non-State actors have been engaging in military operations against ISIL other groups and each other for several years.
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In such complex circumstances States can potentially find themselves in more than one armed conflict or with multiple legal bases for using force.
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Thus the UN Charter recognizes the inherent right to resort to force in individual or collective self-defense. Similarly the Charter does not prohibit an otherwise lawful use of force when undertaken with the consent of the State upon whose territory the force is to be used.
As a matter of international law the United States has relied on both consent and self-defense in its use of force against ISIL.
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Upon commencing air strikes against ISIL in Syria in September 2014 the United States submitted a letter to the UN Security Council explaining the international legal basis for our use of force in Syria in accordance with Article 51 of the UN Charter. As the letter explained Iraq had made clear it was facing a serious threat of continuing attacks from ISIL coming out of safe havens in Syria and had requested that the United States lead international efforts to strike ISIL in Syria. Consistent with the inherent right of individual and collective self-defense the United States initiated necessary and proportionate actions in Syria against ISIL. The letter also articulated the United States’ position that Syria was unable or unwilling to effectively confront the threat that ISIL posed to Iraq the United States and our partners and allies.
Thus although the United States maintains an individual right of self-defense against ISIL it has not relied solely on that international law basis in taking action against ISIL ... And in Syria U.S. operations against ISIL are conducted in individual self-defense and the collective self-defense of Iraq and other States.
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[T]he inherent right of individual and collective self-defense recognized in the U.N. Charter is not restricted to threats posed by States. Nor is the right of self-defense on the territory of another State against non-State actors such as ISIL something that developed after 9/11. To the contrary for at least the past two hundred years States have invoked the right of self-defense to justify taking action on the territory of another State against non-State actors.
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Under the jus ad bellum a State may use force in the exercise of its inherent right of self-defense not only in response to armed attacks that have occurred but also in response to imminent ones before they occur.
When considering whether an armed attack is imminent under the jus ad bellum for purposes of the initial use of force against a particular non-State actor the United States analyzes a variety of factors...These factors include the nature and immediacy of the threat; the probability of an attack; whether the anticipated attack is part of a concerted pattern of continuing armed activity; the likely scale of the attack and the injury loss or damage likely to result therefrom in the absence of mitigating action; and the likelihood that there will be other opportunities to undertake effective action in self-defense that may be expected to cause less serious collateral injury loss or damage. The absence of specific evidence of where an attack will take place or of the precise nature of an attack does not preclude a conclusion that an armed attack is imminent for purposes of the exercise of the right of self-defense provided that there is a reasonable and objective basis for concluding that an armed attack is imminent.
In the view of the United States once a State has lawfully resorted to force in self-defense against a particular armed group following an actual or imminent armed attack by that group it isnot necessary as a matter of international law to reassess whether an armed attack is imminent prior to every subsequent action taken against that group provided that hostilities have not ended.
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Indeed under the jus ad bellum the international legal basis for the resort to force in self-defense on another State’s territory takes into account State sovereignty. The international law of self-defense requires that such uses of force be necessary to address the threat giving rise to the right to use force in the first place. States therefore must consider whether unilateral actions in self-defense that would impinge on a territorial State’s sovereignty are necessary or whether it might be possible to secure the territorial State’s consent before using force on its territory against a non-State actor. In other words international law not only requires a State to analyze whether it has a legal basis for the use of force against a particular non-State actor—which I’ll call the 'against whom' question—but also requires a State to analyze whether it has a legal basis to use force against that non-State actor in a particular location—which I’ll call the 'where' question.
It is with respect to this 'where' question that international law requires that States must either determine that they have the relevant government’s consent or if they must rely on self-defense to use force against a non-State actor on another State’s territory determine that the territorial State is 'unable or unwilling' to address the threat posed by the non-State actor on its territory. In practice States generally rely on the consent of the relevant government in conducting operations against ISIL or other non-State actors even when they may also have a self-defense basis to use force against those non-State actors and this consent often takes the form of a request for assistance from a government that is itself engaged in an armed conflict against the relevant group. This is the case with respect to ISIL in Iraq.
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In some cases international law does not require a State to obtain the consent of the State on whose territory force will be used. In particular there will be cases in which there is a reasonable and objective basis for concluding that the territorial State is unwilling or unable to effectively confront the non-State actor in its territory so that it is necessary to act in self-defense against the non-State actor in that State’s territory without the territorial State’s consent. For example in the case of ISIL in Syria as indicated in our Article 51 letter we could act in self-defense without Syrian consent because we had determined that the Syrian regime was unable or unwilling to prevent the use of its territory for armed attacks by ISIL. This 'unable or unwilling' standard is in our view an important application of the requirement that a State when relying on self-defense for its use of force in another State’s territory may resort to force only if it is necessary to do so—that is if measures short of force have been exhausted or are inadequate to address the threat posed by the non-State actor emanating from the territory of another State.
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The unable or unwilling standard is not a license to wage war globally or to disregard the borders and territorial integrity of other States. Indeed this legal standard does not dispense with the importance of respecting the sovereignty of other States. To the contrary applying the standard ensures that the sovereignty of other States is respected. Specifically applying the standard ensures that force is used on foreign territory without consent only in those exceptional circumstances in which a State cannot or will not take effective measures to confront a non-State actor that is using its territory as a base for attacks and related operations against other States.
With respect to the 'unable' prong of the standard inability perhaps can be demonstrated most plainly for example where a State has lost or abandoned effective control over the portion of its territory from which the non-State actor is operating. This is the case with respect to the situation in Syria. By September 2014 the Syrian government had lost effective control of much of eastern and northeastern Syria with much of that territory under ISIL’s control."
Collective self-defense; Individual self-defense; Consent of host stateISILGeneral military action; Airstrikeshttps://www.justsecurity.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Egan-ASIL-speech.pdfhttps://perma.cc/662W-TPPJ
United States of America2016-04-26Speech by President ObamaPublic Statement"After announcing the deployment of up to 250 special forces to Syria President Obama said ""They're not going to be leading the fight on the ground but they will be essential in providing the training and assisting local forces as they continue to drive ISIL back."""N/AISILIn-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.reuters.com/article/us-mideast-crisis-usa-syria-idUSKCN0XL0ZE"English: https://perma.cc/D8KU-YDXA
French: https://perma.cc/AZ6R-K4NR"
United States of America2014-09-23President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""Mr Obama said yesterday the plan was moving ahead and the US would “ramp up our effort to train and equip the Syrian opposition who are the best counterweight to ISIL and the Assad regime”."""N/A"ISIL Assad regime"In-country training and logistical supporthttp://www.thenational.ae/world/middle-east/uae-joins-airstrikes-on-isil-bases-in-syria#page2https://perma.cc/Y9SN-QWJL
United States of America2012-08-20President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""I have at this point not ordered military engagement in the situation. But the point that you made about chemical and biological weapons is critical. That’s an issue that doesn’t just concern Syria; it concerns our close allies in the region including Israel. It concerns us. We cannot have a situation where chemical or biological weapons are falling into the hands of the wrong people.
We have been very clear to the Assad regime but also to other players on the ground that a red line for us is we start seeing a whole bunch of chemical weapons moving around or being utilized. That would change my calculus. That would change my equation."""Collective self-defense; Individual self-defense"Assad regime; other (""other players on the ground"")"N/Ahttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2012/08/20/remarks-president-white-house-press-corps"English: https://perma.cc/U3H7-UVNH
German: https://perma.cc/QF4L-PXE4"
United States of America2013-08-31President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""Now after careful deliberation I have decided that the United States should take military action against Syrian regime targets. This would not be an open-ended intervention. We would not put boots on the ground. Instead our action would be designed to be limited in duration and scope. But I'm confident we can hold the Assad regime accountable for their use of chemical weapons deter this kind of behavior and degrade their capacity to carry it out.
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Yet while I believe I have the authority to carry out this military action without specific congressional authorization I know that the country will be stronger if we take this course and our actions will be even more effective."""N/AAssad regimeAirstrikeshttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/08/31/statement-president-syriahttps://perma.cc/6Y9Z-F267
United States of America2013-09-10President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"[Talking about Syrian President Assad using cheminal weapons] ""And that is why after careful deliberation I determined that it is in the national security interests of the United States to respond to the Assad regime’s use of chemical weapons through a targeted military strike. The purpose of this strike would be to deter Assad from using chemical weapons to degrade his regime’s ability to use them and to make clear to the world that we will not tolerate their use.
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Meanwhile I’ve ordered our military to maintain their current posture to keep the pressure on Assad and to be in a position to respond if diplomacy fails."""N/AAssad regimeAirstrikes; General military actionhttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/09/10/remarks-president-address-nation-syriahttps://perma.cc/46WW-5PSX
United States of America2014-09-10President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""First we will conduct a systematic campaign of airstrikes against these terrorists. Working with the Iraqi government we will expand our efforts beyond protecting our own people and humanitarian missions so that we’re hitting ISIL targets as Iraqi forces go on offense. Moreover I have made it clear that we will hunt down terrorists who threaten our country wherever they are. That means I will not hesitate to take action against ISIL in Syria as well as Iraq. This is a core principle of my presidency: If you threaten America you will find no safe haven.
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Across the border in Syria we have ramped up our military assistance to the Syrian opposition. Tonight I call on Congress again to give us additional authorities and resources to train and equip these fighters."""Individual self-defense; Consent of host stateISILAirstrikes; In-country training and assistancehttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/10/statement-president-isil-1"English: https://perma.cc/Q4E2-6PDZ
German: https://perma.cc/D2BQ-CENY"
United States of America2013-09-07President Barack ObamaPublic Statement"""What we’re talking about is not an open-ended intervention. This would not be another Iraq or Afghanistan. There would be no American boots on the ground. Any action we take would be limited both in time and scope – designed to deter the Syrian government from gassing its own people again and degrade its ability to do so."""N/AAssad regimeAirstrikeshttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/09/07/weekly-address-calling-limited-military-action-syriahttps://perma.cc/XK6M-Q724
United States of America2013-11-04"Remarks by President Obama in a Joint Press Conference with the Prime Minister Reinfeldt of Sweden"Public statement"“We may not be directly imminently threatened by what’s taking place in a Kosovo or a Syria or a Rwanda in the short term but our long-term national security will be impacted in a profound way and our humanity is impacted in a profound way.
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And so I think it’s important for us to get out of the habit in those circumstances -- again I’m not talking about circumstances where our national security is directly impacted we’ve been attacked et cetera where the President has to act quickly -- but in circumstances of the type that I describe it’s important for us to get out of the habit of just saying well we’ll let the President kind of stretch the boundaries of his authority as far as he can; Congress will sit on the sidelines snipe; if it works the sniping will be a little less; if it doesn’t a little more; but either way the American people and their representatives are not fully invested in what are tough choices."""N/AN/AN/Ahttps://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/09/04/remarks-president-obama-and-prime-minister-reinfeldt-sweden-joint-press-https://perma.cc/8FLA-A7ET
United States of America; Australia; Luxembourg2014-09-19"Statements at Security Council Meeting by Secretary of State Kerry; Julie Bishop Minister for Foreign Affairs; Jean Asselborn Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of Luxembourg"Statement made at the UN"""Secretary of State Kerry at a Security Council meeting stated that ""[International military assistance is] provided at the request of Iraq and in full respect for its sovereignty."
Julie Bishop Minister for Foreign Affairs remarked that ""In cooperation with Iraq we are deploying a military force to the region for possible involvement in a United States-led effort to support Iraq against ISIL."
ean Asselborn Minister of Foreign and European Affairs of Luxembourg ""We support the commitment of the coalition launched by the United States at the request of the Iraqi authorities and with the active support of the countries of the region."""Collective self-defense; host state consentISILGeneral military activity; Troops on the groundhttp://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/s_pv_7271.pdfhttps://perma.cc/QB6Q-RW7Y
United States of America; Iran; Syria; Iraq; Lebanon; France2014-09-23"Statement by State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki; President Hassan Rouhani; Syrian Foreign Ministry; Faleh al-Fayad the Iraqi national security adviser; Robert Mardini head for ICRC operations in Middle East and Africa; Lebanese politician; French Diplomat"Public Statement"""""The foreign minister received a letter from his American counterpart via the Iraqi foreign minister in which he informed him that the United States and some of its allies would target (Islamic State) in Syria"" the Syrian foreign ministry said in the statement. ""That was hours before the raids started."
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"We warned Syria not to engage U.S. aircraft. We did not request the regime's permission. We did not coordinate our actions with the Syrian government"" U.S. State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said in a statement.
"We did not provide advance notification to the Syrians at a military level or give any indication of our timing on specific targets."
Russia one of Assad's major allies criticised the U.S.-led strikes saying they should have been agreed with Damascus.
President Hassan Rouhani of Iran another of Assad's major backers neither condemned nor endorsed the military action. Speaking to senior editors ahead of the annual gathering of world leaders at the U.N. General Assembly he said military action lacked ""legal standing"" without a U.N. mandate or a request from the government of the affected country."
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"But it is important for us and it is clear that whatever military operation is being undertaken rules and principles of international humanitarian law are fully applicable and have to be respected at all times"" Mardini who is head of Red Cross operations for the Near and Middle East told Reuters Television.
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Faleh al-Fayad the Iraqi national security adviser was back in Damascus on Tuesday briefing Assad on the next steps ""in efforts to combat terrorism"" Syrian state media reported.
The Syrian government said coordination with Iraq was ""at its highest levels"" and reiterated its willingness to be part of international efforts to combat Islamic State.
"Syria confirms that it has fought and continues to fight (Islamic State) in Raqaa and Deir al-Zor and other areas"" the statement said. ""It has not and will not stop fighting the organisation in cooperation with states directly harmed by it - most importantly with Iraq"" the government statement said.
A senior Lebanese politician with close ties to the Syrian government said the Syrian statement also suggested U.S. coordination with Damascus though the United States would not be able to publicly say that was happening.
"It is certain that if these air strikes are serious they will strengthen the enemies of (Islamic State) at the forefront of whom is the Syrian regime"" said the politician.
The analyst interviewed on Syrian state TV said the notification meant the air strikes were neither an act of aggression nor an infringement of Syrian sovereignty.
"All the targets and warplanes were monitored by the Syrian air defence"" said the analyst Ali al-Ahmad. ""This does not mean we are part of the joint operations room and we are not part of the alliance. But there is a common enemy."
Assad's opponents have accused him of deliberately allowing Islamic State to emerge as a threat so that it could fight his more moderate opponents and bolster his narrative that the entire opposition are all Islamic extremists.
"It’s not the act of striking (Islamic State) that strengthens Bashar. The trap that he wants us to fall into is that he is recognised as a partner in the fight against terrorism"" said a French diplomatic source."""Consent of host stateISIL; other terrorist groupsAirstrikeshttp://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-syria-crisis-kerry-idUKKCN0HI0QP20140923https://perma.cc/2TZ8-RSE7
United States; Jordan; Saudi Arabia; Bahrain2014-09-23Official announcement Formal diplomatic written correspondence"“In a letter Tuesday to UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon the Obama administration said the air strikes on the territory of another member state were justified because Damascus was “unwilling or unable to prevent the use of its territory” by Islamic State.
“Accordingly the United States has initiated necessary and proportionate military actions in Syria in order to eliminate the ongoing threat” read the letter obtained by Reuters. Syria was informed just before the attacks but U.S. officials did not seek its permission.
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“We were joined in this action by our friends and partners – Saudi Arabia the United Arab Emirates Jordan Bahrain and Qatar” the President pointed out only hours after the first of more than 40 cruise missiles fired from U.S. warships slammed into targets deep inside Syria. They were followed by U.S. warplanes from land bases and from the USS George H.W. Bush deployed in the Persian Gulf. Remotely piloted Predator and Reaper drones armed with Hellfire missiles also attacked according to the Pentagon.
“America is proud to stand shoulder to shoulder with these nations” the Mr. Obama said of the Arab nations making no mention of Western allies including Canada Australia and France.
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Typical was Jordan’s official announcement which made no mention of the United States Syria or the Islamic State. “Unfortunately border violations have increased significantly over the past two months forcing the armed forces to implement air strikes on a number of sites controlled by some of the terrorist groups as launch pads for their operations against Jordanian territory” it said.
Saudi Arabia the richest and most powerful Sunni state said its “air forces took part in military operations in Syria against the Islamic State group” but it gave no indication whether its fighter-bombers actually struck targets.
A statement from Bahrain home port to the U.S. Navy’s 5th Fleet vaguely announced its aircraft conducted along with “those of allied and friendly countries air strikes against a number of selected targets of terrorist groups and organizations and destroyed them.”
The cloudy ambiguity emanating from Arab capitals stood in sharp contrast to Mr. Obama’s portrayal of the coalition as a willing and open effort by more than 40 countries to in his words “degrade and destroy” the Islamic State.
“The people and governments in the Middle East are rejecting ISIL and standing up for the peace and security that the people of the region and the world deserve” Mr. Obama said in a short statement using an earlier name for the militants before flying to New York for the climate change summit.
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Syria where the embattled regime of Bashar al-Assad has resorted to chemical weapons and indiscriminate bombing of civilian centres in a three-year-long war to crush rebels welcomed the U.S. air strikes.
“The Syrian Arab Republic stands with any international effort to fight terrorism no matter what a group is called – whether Daesh or Nusra Front or something else” it said using a pejorative Arabic name for Islamic State.
Syria is “not part of the alliance. But there is a common enemy” said a Syrian analyst on the state-controlled TV station run by the Assad regime suggesting Damascus was pleased to see U.S. warplanes attacking its enemies.
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“Going forward we won’t hesitate to take action against these terrorists in Iraq or in Syria” Mr. Obama told Americans before the attacks were launched in Syria. But he promised a war-weary U.S. public that he “won’t commit our troops to fighting another ground war in Iraq or in Syria.”
Instead the President has promised: “We will use our air power. We will train and equip our partners. We will advise and we will assist. And we’ll lead a broad coalition of nations who have a stake in this fight. This isn’t America vs. ISIL. This is the people of that region vs. ISIL. It’s the world vs ISIL” he said referring to the group by its old name Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant."""Individual self-defense; Collective self-defense; Unable/unwillingOther terrorist groupsAir strikeshttp://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/us-launches-dozens-of-air-strikes-in-syria-against-islamic-state/article20736643/https://perma.cc/655Z-XB6G